Antioxidant effect of ethanol toward in vitro peroxidation of human low-density lipoproteins initiated by oxygen free radicals.Radiat Res 2001; 155(2):279-87RR
This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the peroxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) initiated by oxygen free radicals (O(2)(.-) and (.)OH in the absence of ethanol; O(2)(.-) and ethanol-derived peroxyl radicals, RO(2)(.), in the presence of ethanol) generated by gamma radiolysis. Initial radiolytic yields as determined by several markers of lipid peroxidation [i.e. decrease in endogenous antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, formation of conjugated dienes and of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS)] were determined in 3 g liter(-1) LDLs (expressed as total LDL concentration) in the absence of ethanol or its presence at six different concentrations (0.42-17 x 10(-2) mol liter(-1)). Ethanol acted as an antioxidant by decreasing the rate of consumption of LDL endogenous antioxidants and the yields of formation of lipid peroxidation products, and by delaying the onset of the propagation phase for conjugated dienes and TBARS. With regard to the different markers studied, except for alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene consumption, the effect of ethanol did not appear to be dependent on its concentration. Indeed, (.)OH were scavenged by ethanol at the lowest ethanol concentration (0.42 x 10(-2) mol liter(-1)), leading to RO(2)(.). These RO(2)(.) resulted in lower radiation-induced yields related to endogenous antioxidant consumption or to formation of lipid peroxidation products (for example, approximately 10% of RO(2)(.) oxidized LDLs from TBARS). Thus, under our in vitro conditions, ethanol behaved as an antioxidant when added to the LDL solutions. This should be taken into account in the reported antioxidant activity of wine. This is also of interest when lipophilic compounds have to be added as ethanolic solutions to LDLs to evaluate in vitro their antioxidant activity toward LDL peroxidation.