Endoscopic gastrointestinal manifestations of liver disease.Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2001 Jan; 11(1):15-44.GE
Esophageal and gastric varices are common manifestations of advanced chronic liver disease, but other endoscopic gastrointestinal manifestations of portal hypertension may occur. In the upper gastrointestinal tract, portal hypertensive gastropathy, particularly when severe, and gastric antral vascular ectasias are important alternative causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertensive enteropathy is an uncommon source of gastrointestinal bleeding, and its overall clinical significance remains unknown. In the lower gastrointestinal tract, portal hypertension may be associated with hemorrhoids, anorectal varices, and portal hypertensive colopathy, all of which are occasional causes of gastrointestinal bleeding.