Production efficiency of Japanese black calves by transfer of bovine embryos produced in vitro.Theriogenology 2000; 54(9):1409-20T
The objective of this study was to examine the production efficiency of Japanese Black beef calves after transfer of bovine embryos derived from an in vitro procedure. In vitro-produced (IVP) embryos were obtained from in vitro maturation and fertilization and in vitro development by co-culture with cumulus cells until 7 or 8 days after insemination. In vivo-developed (IVD) embryos from superovulated Japanese Black heifers and cows 7 days after artificial insemination were used as a control group. Bovine embryos were transferred nonsurgically to recipient cows on Day 7 +/- 1 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy was diagnosed by palpation per rectum at Day 60 to 70 after estrus. Pregnancy, abortion, perinatal accident and birth rates were examined according to the origin of embryos (IVP or IVD), the number of transferred embryos (single or twin) and the storage status (fresh or frozen-thawed). In Experiment 1, production efficiency by twin transfer of fresh IVP embryos was examined. Higher pregnancy rates (52 1% vs 42 9%, P < 0.05) and birth rates (47.0% vs. 33.0%, P < 0.05) were obtained by twin transfer than by single transfer of fresh IVP embryos. Thus, the twin transfer of fresh IVP embryos was effective for production of calves, although the birth rates for single and twin transfers of fresh IVD embryos were still higher (55.5% and 76.1%, P < 0.05). But the abortion and perinatal accident rates for twin transfer of fresh IVP embryos were also significantly greater than those for single and twin transfer of fresh IVD embryos (P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, production efficiency by twin transfer of frozen-thawed IVP embryos was examined. Either single or twin transfer of frozen-thawed IVP embryos resulted in a similar pregnancy rate (41.3% vs. 46.7%, P > 0.05) and birth rate (34.1% vs. 41.1%, P>0.05). Thus, in combination with frozen-thawed IVP embryos, the twin transfer did not enhance production efficiency. In conclusion, Japanese Black beef calves could effectively produce calves by twin transfer to Holstein recipients when using fresh IVP embryos, and by single transfer when using frozen-thawed IVP embryos.