Characterisation of isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum from Indonesia.Aust Vet J. 2000 Nov; 78(11):759-62.AV
To characterise 18 isolates of Haemophilus paragallinarum isolated from chickens in Indonesia.
The isolates were identified to species level by traditional phenotypic methods. Six of the isolates were also identified by a species-specific polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen of the isolates were examined for resistance to a panel of seven antimicrobial agents using a disc diffusion method. All 18 isolates were serotyped according to the Page scheme using reference antisera in a haemagglutination inhibition test.
Four of the 18 isolates were obtained from indigenous (kampung) chickens, with the remainder being from typical intensive poultry production systems. The 18 isolates were obtained from 11 outbreaks that showed the typical clinical signs of infectious coryza and 11 of the isolates were obtained from chickens that had been vaccinated with infectious coryza vaccines. All 18 isolates were confirmed as H paragallinarum by biochemical testing and six isolates were also identified as H paragallinarum by the polymerase chain reaction test. Eleven isolates were resistant to erythromycin and streptomycin, 10 to neomycin, eight to oxytetracycline, five isolates to doxycycline, three to sulphamethoxazoltrimethoprim but only one to ampicillin. Seven isolates were Page serovar A, four were Page serovar B and seven were Page serovar C.
The presence of all three Page serovars (A, B and C) has been confirmed for the first time in Indonesian chickens. As the majority of the infectious coryza vaccines in use in Indonesia contain only serovar A and C, the presence of serovar B in chickens indicates that the protection by these bivalent vaccines would be reduced. The use of trivalent infectious coryza vaccines that contain serovars A, B and C is recommended for use in Indonesia.