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Maternal depression and comorbidity: predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001 Jan; 40(1):18-26.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine relations between maternal depression (in pure and comorbid forms) and mother-infant interactions, infant attachment, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. A second objective was to explore sex differences.

METHOD

Sixty-nine mother-infant dyads were followed from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Depression was measured at multiple times with self-report and interview assessments. Play was assessed at 4 months and attachment status at 14 months postpartum. At 30 months, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment.

RESULTS

Lifetime maternal depression predicted less optimal mother-infant interactions and insecure infant attachment. However, this "depression effect" was accounted for by mothers with comorbid diagnoses, who had less optimal interactions, and infants with higher rates of insecurity than either mothers with depression only or mothers with no psychopathology. Prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms were associated with problem behaviors and lower competencies for boys. In contrast, quality of early interactions predicted problem behaviors in girls.

CONCLUSIONS

It is important to examine the context of maternal depression with respect to additional psychopathology and environmental risks. Maternal depression in the presence of other psychopathology confers risk to the mother-child dyad. Consistent with previous work, risk pathways appear to differ for boys and girls. Early identification and prevention efforts are warranted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125-3393, USA. alice.carter@umb.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11195555

Citation

Carter, A S., et al. "Maternal Depression and Comorbidity: Predicting Early Parenting, Attachment Security, and Toddler Social-emotional Problems and Competencies." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 1, 2001, pp. 18-26.
Carter AS, Garrity-Rokous FE, Chazan-Cohen R, et al. Maternal depression and comorbidity: predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(1):18-26.
Carter, A. S., Garrity-Rokous, F. E., Chazan-Cohen, R., Little, C., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2001). Maternal depression and comorbidity: predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(1), 18-26.
Carter AS, et al. Maternal Depression and Comorbidity: Predicting Early Parenting, Attachment Security, and Toddler Social-emotional Problems and Competencies. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001;40(1):18-26. PubMed PMID: 11195555.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Maternal depression and comorbidity: predicting early parenting, attachment security, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. AU - Carter,A S, AU - Garrity-Rokous,F E, AU - Chazan-Cohen,R, AU - Little,C, AU - Briggs-Gowan,M J, PY - 2001/2/24/pubmed PY - 2001/3/3/medline PY - 2001/2/24/entrez SP - 18 EP - 26 JF - Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry JO - J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry VL - 40 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine relations between maternal depression (in pure and comorbid forms) and mother-infant interactions, infant attachment, and toddler social-emotional problems and competencies. A second objective was to explore sex differences. METHOD: Sixty-nine mother-infant dyads were followed from pregnancy to 30 months postpartum. Depression was measured at multiple times with self-report and interview assessments. Play was assessed at 4 months and attachment status at 14 months postpartum. At 30 months, mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. RESULTS: Lifetime maternal depression predicted less optimal mother-infant interactions and insecure infant attachment. However, this "depression effect" was accounted for by mothers with comorbid diagnoses, who had less optimal interactions, and infants with higher rates of insecurity than either mothers with depression only or mothers with no psychopathology. Prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms were associated with problem behaviors and lower competencies for boys. In contrast, quality of early interactions predicted problem behaviors in girls. CONCLUSIONS: It is important to examine the context of maternal depression with respect to additional psychopathology and environmental risks. Maternal depression in the presence of other psychopathology confers risk to the mother-child dyad. Consistent with previous work, risk pathways appear to differ for boys and girls. Early identification and prevention efforts are warranted. SN - 0890-8567 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11195555/Maternal_depression_and_comorbidity:_predicting_early_parenting_attachment_security_and_toddler_social_emotional_problems_and_competencies_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0890-8567(09)60811-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -