Role of cytokines in pathogenesis of endometriosis.Med Sci Monit. 2000 Sep-Oct; 6(5):1042-6.MS
Sampson's theory stating that endometrial cells and fragments desquamate during the menstrual period are transported through Fallopian tubes into the peritoneal cavity where they implant, proliferate and develop into endometriotic lesions is generally accepted . Accumulating data suggest that deficient immunity against retrograde endometrium during menstruation may be involved in the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Recent studies in women with endometriosis have demonstrated functional changes in several immunologic components in the peritoneal fluid as well as in sera of those patients. It was shown, for instance, that a wide pattern of cytokines are involved during endometrial cells implantation, proliferation and forming of endometriotic lesions. Those factors play a critical role in decreased immunologic surveillance, recognition and destruction of ectopic endometrial cells and possible facilitation of the implantation of ectopic endometrial tissues. The present review summarises the current knowledge on the role of different cytokines in the pathophysiology of endometriosis.