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Cigarette smoking negatively affects healing response following flap debridement surgery.
J Periodontol. 2001 Jan; 72(1):43-9.JP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The purpose of the present parallel design, controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the treatment outcome following flap debridement surgery (FDS) in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers.

METHODS

After initial therapy, 57 systemically healthy subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis who presented with one area (at least 3 teeth) where surgery was required were selected. Twenty-eight patients (mean age: 39.6 years, 20 males) were smokers (> or = 10 cigarettes/day); 29 patients (mean age: 43.9 years, 7 males) were non-smokers. Full-mouth plaque (FMP) and bleeding on probing (BOP) scores, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and recession depth (RD) were assessed immediately before and 6 months following surgery. Only sites with presurgery PD > or = 4 mm were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS

Presurgery FMP and BOP were similar in smokers and non-smokers and significantly decreased postsurgery in both groups. Overall, PD reduction and CAL gain were greater, although not significantly, in non-smokers (2.4 +/- 0.9 mm and 1.6 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively) than in smokers (1.9 +/- 0.7 mm and 1.2 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively). For moderate sites (PD 4 to 6 mm), no significant differences in PD and CAL changes were found between groups. For deep sites (PD > or = 7 mm), PD reduction was 3.0 +/- 1.0 mm in smokers and 4.0 +/- 0.8 mm in non-smokers, and CAL gain amounted to 1.8 +/- 1.1 mm in smokers and 2.8 +/- 1.0 mm in non-smokers (P = 0.0477). In smokers, 16% of deep sites healed to postsurgery PD values < or = 3 mm as compared to 47% in non-smokers (P = 0.0000); 58% of deep sites in smokers showed a CAL gain > or = 2 mm, as compared to 82% in non-smokers (P = 0.0000).

CONCLUSIONS

Results of the study indicated that: 1) FDS determined a statistically significant PD reduction and CAL gain in patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis; 2) smokers exhibited a trend towards less favorable healing response following FDS compared to non-smokers, both in terms of PD reduction and CAL gain; and 3) this trend reached clinical and statistical significance at sites with initial deep PD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Center for the Study of Periodontal Diseases, University of Ferrara, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11210072

Citation

Scabbia, A, et al. "Cigarette Smoking Negatively Affects Healing Response Following Flap Debridement Surgery." Journal of Periodontology, vol. 72, no. 1, 2001, pp. 43-9.
Scabbia A, Cho KS, Sigurdsson TJ, et al. Cigarette smoking negatively affects healing response following flap debridement surgery. J Periodontol. 2001;72(1):43-9.
Scabbia, A., Cho, K. S., Sigurdsson, T. J., Kim, C. K., & Trombelli, L. (2001). Cigarette smoking negatively affects healing response following flap debridement surgery. Journal of Periodontology, 72(1), 43-9.
Scabbia A, et al. Cigarette Smoking Negatively Affects Healing Response Following Flap Debridement Surgery. J Periodontol. 2001;72(1):43-9. PubMed PMID: 11210072.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cigarette smoking negatively affects healing response following flap debridement surgery. AU - Scabbia,A, AU - Cho,K S, AU - Sigurdsson,T J, AU - Kim,C K, AU - Trombelli,L, PY - 2001/2/24/pubmed PY - 2001/4/6/medline PY - 2001/2/24/entrez SP - 43 EP - 9 JF - Journal of periodontology JO - J Periodontol VL - 72 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present parallel design, controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the treatment outcome following flap debridement surgery (FDS) in cigarette smokers compared to non-smokers. METHODS: After initial therapy, 57 systemically healthy subjects with moderate to advanced periodontitis who presented with one area (at least 3 teeth) where surgery was required were selected. Twenty-eight patients (mean age: 39.6 years, 20 males) were smokers (> or = 10 cigarettes/day); 29 patients (mean age: 43.9 years, 7 males) were non-smokers. Full-mouth plaque (FMP) and bleeding on probing (BOP) scores, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and recession depth (RD) were assessed immediately before and 6 months following surgery. Only sites with presurgery PD > or = 4 mm were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Presurgery FMP and BOP were similar in smokers and non-smokers and significantly decreased postsurgery in both groups. Overall, PD reduction and CAL gain were greater, although not significantly, in non-smokers (2.4 +/- 0.9 mm and 1.6 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively) than in smokers (1.9 +/- 0.7 mm and 1.2 +/- 0.7 mm, respectively). For moderate sites (PD 4 to 6 mm), no significant differences in PD and CAL changes were found between groups. For deep sites (PD > or = 7 mm), PD reduction was 3.0 +/- 1.0 mm in smokers and 4.0 +/- 0.8 mm in non-smokers, and CAL gain amounted to 1.8 +/- 1.1 mm in smokers and 2.8 +/- 1.0 mm in non-smokers (P = 0.0477). In smokers, 16% of deep sites healed to postsurgery PD values < or = 3 mm as compared to 47% in non-smokers (P = 0.0000); 58% of deep sites in smokers showed a CAL gain > or = 2 mm, as compared to 82% in non-smokers (P = 0.0000). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study indicated that: 1) FDS determined a statistically significant PD reduction and CAL gain in patients with moderate to advanced periodontitis; 2) smokers exhibited a trend towards less favorable healing response following FDS compared to non-smokers, both in terms of PD reduction and CAL gain; and 3) this trend reached clinical and statistical significance at sites with initial deep PD. SN - 0022-3492 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11210072/Cigarette_smoking_negatively_affects_healing_response_following_flap_debridement_surgery_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2001.72.1.43 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -