Teacher reports of DSM-IV ADHD, ODD, and CD symptoms in schoolchildren.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2001 Feb; 40(2):241-9.JA
To examine the prevalence of DSM-IV symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder and age, gender, and comorbidity differences between ADHD subtypes.
Teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced symptom inventory for 3,006 schoolchildren aged between 3 and 18 years.
The screening prevalence rate of ADHD behaviors was 15.8%; rates for individual subtypes were 9.9% for inattentive, 2.4% for hyperactive-impulsive, and 3.6% for combined. The inattentive type was relatively uncommon in preschool children (3.9%), whereas the hyperactive-impulsive type was least common in teenagers (0.8%). Screening prevalence rates were higher for African-American (39.5%) than white (14.2%) students, but did not vary significantly (p < .05) as a function of geographic region or socioeconomic status. ADHD subtypes were rated as more impaired than the non-ADHD group on most measures and were easily differentiated on the basis of comorbid symptoms, social skills impairment, and special education services.
The findings of this and similar studies show relatively high convergence for the prevalence of ADHD behaviors and differences between ADHD subtypes.