Antisense targeting of c-fos transcripts inhibits serum- and TGF-beta 1-stimulated PAI-1 gene expression and directed motility in renal epithelial cells.Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2001 Mar; 48(3):163-74.CM
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), the major regulator of pericellular plasmin generation, and the c-FOS transcription factor are expressed by migrating cells in response to monolayer wounding. Induced c-fos and PAI-1 transcripts were evident within 30 min and 2 h, respectively, of scrape injury to confluent, growth-arrested, cultures of NRK epithelial cells. Since c-FOS/AP-1 DNA-binding activity modulates both basal and inducible modes of PAI-1 gene control, and AP-1 motif binding factors were present in quiescent as well as stimulated NRK cells, a model of directionally regulated cell movement (migration into scrape-denuded "wounds") was used to assess the consequences of c-fos transcript targeting on PAI-1 expression and cell motility. This in vitro model of epithelial injury closely approximated in vivo wound repair with regard to the spatial and temporal emergence of cohorts of cells involved in migration, proliferation, and PAI-1 expression. Stable cell lines (NRKsof) were generated by transfection of parental NRK cells with a c-fos antisense expression vector. Serum-inducible c-fos transcripts and PAI-1 protein levels were significantly attenuated in NRKsof transfectants relative to parental controls or cells transfected with a neo(R) vector without the sof insert. NRKsof cells had a markedly impaired ability to repair scrape-generated monolayer wounds under basal, serum-stimulated, or TGF-beta 1-supplemented culture conditions. Since injury closure and PAI-1 induction were attenuated in c-fos antisense cells, it was important to clarify the role of specific AP-1 sites in serum-mediated PAI-1 transcription. PAI-1 "promoter"-driven CAT reporter expression was assessed within the real time of serum-stimulated PAI-1 induction. A segment of the PAI-1 promoter corresponding to nucleotides -533 to -764 upstream of the transcription start site functioned as a prominent serum-responsive region (SSR). The 9-fold increase in CAT mRNA levels attained with the -533 to -764 bp PAI-1 SRR ligated to a minimal PAI-1 promoter (i.e., 162 bp of 5' flanking sequence containing the basal transcription complex) closely approximated the serum-induced transcriptional activity of a fully responsive (1,230 bp) PAI-1 promoter construct as well as the endogenous PAI-1 gene. AP-1-like, CTF/NF-1-like, and AP-2 sites were identified in the SRR. The SRR AP-1 motif was homologous to the sequence TGACACA that mapped between nucleotides -740 and -703 in the human PAI-1 gene, a region essential for growth factor-inducible PAI-1 transcription. While the functionality of this AP-1 site in wound-regulated PAI-1 synthesis remains to be determined, antisense c-fos transcripts effectively attenuated PAI-1 induction and basal as well as growth factor-stimulated cell locomotion, indicating that expression of both the PAI-1 and c-fos genes is necessary for wound-initiated NRK cell migration.