Measles antibody responses after early two dose trials in Guinea-Bissau with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz standard-titre measles vaccine: better antibody increase from booster dose of the Edmonston-Zagreb vaccine.Vaccine. 2001 Feb 28; 19(15-16):1951-9.V
In Guinea-Bissau, children were randomised at 6 months of age to receive either two doses of standard-titre measles vaccine at 6 and 9 months of age or an inactivated polio vaccine at 6 months and standard-titre measles vaccine at 9 months of age. During the first 5 months, children received Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine and during the following 11 months, the Schwarz (SW) vaccine. Five percent of the mothers, 74% of children at 6 months of age, and 92% of unvaccinated children at 9 months of age had unprotective levels (<125 mIU/ml) of measles antibodies. Among children receiving EZ vaccine, 1% were unprotected at 18 months of age after either two (3/240) or one (3/211) doses of vaccine, the geometric mean measles antibody titre (GMT) being approximately 1550 mIU/ml in both groups. Among those receiving SW vaccine 9% (34/365) and 3% (9/310) were unprotected at 18 months of age in the two-dose and the one-dose groups (RR = 3.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-6.58)), respectively. The GMT was higher after one dose of SW vaccine at 9 months of age (2491 mIU/ml) than after two doses of SW vaccine (1125 mIU) (P < 0.001). In the EZ vaccine group, there was no significant difference in antibody level for children vaccinated in the presence of high or low levels of maternal antibodies, whereas there was a marked difference in the SW group. The second EZ vaccine induced a significant antibody increase between 9 months of age (1191 mIU) and 18 months of age (1602 mIU, P=0.011), whereas antibody levels tended to decline from 9 months (1243 mIU) to 18 months of age (998 mIU, P = 0.124) after the second dose of SW vaccine. Conclusively, after two doses of EZ measles vaccine more children were protected at 18 months of age than after two doses of SW. One dose of SW provided the highest antibody response, but a higher proportion of unprotected than one or two doses of EZ. The EZ vaccine was less sensitive to maternal antibodies, and able to increase the antibody response by revaccination, while the second SW vaccine resulted in an unchanged or lower antibody response.