Treating family survivors of mass casualties: a CISM family crisis intervention approach.Int J Emerg Ment Health. 1999 Fall; 1(4):243-50.IJ
Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) approaches emphasize the needs of families in crisis as one component of comprehensive service delivery. The need is particularly true for family survivors of mass casualties. This paper presents one CISM theoretical approach to these family survivors that is based on both the general principles of crisis intervention and recent findings in the field of psychological trauma. The model outlines three stages that many family survivors encounter as well as the time lines, tasks, and primary feeling states in each stage. Specific strategies for intervention in each stage are presented. The implications are discussed.