Analysis of intratumoral heterogeneity of chromosome 3p deletions and genetic evidence of polyclonal origin of cervical squamous carcinoma.Mod Pathol. 2001 Feb; 14(2):54-61.MP
Investigation on intratumoral genetic heterogeneity provides an important insight into the roles of genetic alterations in human carcinogenesis and clues to clonal origin of tumors. Intratumoral heterogeneity of genetic changes of cervical cancer has not been described so far. In this study, we analyzed the intratumoral heterogeneity of chromosome 3p deletions and X-chromosome inactivation patterns in multiple microdissected samples from each individual cervical cancer, attempting to understand the roles of 3p deletions in development of cervical cancer and its clonal origin. Totally, 120 normal and lesional samples from 14 cases of fresh cervicalcancers were analyzed. Frequency and patterns of allelic losses of 3p were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 12 microsatellite markers flanking the frequently deleted regions of 3p, followed by Genescan analysis in an ABI 377 DNA sequencer. Loss of heterozygosity was recorded as heterogeneous pattern (LOH present in parts of samples or LOH involving different alleles among different samples) and homogeneous pattern (LOH involving identical alleles in all samples from the tumor). Allelic loss affecting at least one marker was detected in 8 of 14 cases (57%). Allelic losses, both homogeneous and heterogeneous, were frequently detected at FHIT gene region (D3S1300, 40% and 60%; D3S4103, 27.3% and 54.6%), 3p21.3-21.2 (D3S1478, 27.3% and 45.5%), and 3p24.2-22 (D3S1283, 30% and 50%). Seven of eight LOH-positive tumors exhibited homogeneous allelic loss involving at least one of these three 3p loci. Allelic losses were present in the CIN lesions synchronous with invasive lesions positive for LOH. Our findings suggest essential roles of genes on these 3p loci, particularly the FHIT gene in participating in clonal selection and early development of cervical cancer. Most interestingly, with the combination of LOH analysis and X-chromosome inactivation analysis, we provided the first clear genetic evidence of polyclonal origin of cervical invasive cancer in two of eight cases. This finding strongly suggests the importance of field defect (possible human papilloma virus) in cervical carcinogenesis.