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In vitro effects of aged garlic extract and other nutritional supplements on sickle erythrocytes.

Abstract

In the circulation of sickle cell anemia patients, a certain population of erythrocytes has an elevated density. These abnormally dense cells are believed to be at the root of the painful crisis and anemia of the patients. We have developed an in vitro method for the preparation of these heavier erythrocytes by a repeated deoxy-oxy cycling of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia patients. By using this method, we studied whether certain nutritional supplements would inhibit the formation of dense cells in vitro. It was found that aged garlic extract (AGE) as well as its components with antioxidant activity, i.e., S-allylcysteine and N alpha-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (fructosyl arginine), inhibited the formation of dense cells in vitro. Vitamin C, vitamin E and the spin-trapping agents, 5-diethoxyphophoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone were all found to inhibit the formation of dense cells in vitro. These results suggest that, when extremely stretched sickle-shaped cells are formed by the repeated deoxy-oxy cycling, the erythrocyte membrane becomes susceptible to oxidative injury by reactive oxygen species. The protection of the erythrocyte membrane from such an oxidative injury would prevent the membranes from becoming leaky to the calcium ion, thus inhibiting the activation of the calcium-activated potassium efflux channel and the formation of dense cells. We also developed a new ex vivo method of studying the possible efficacy of antioxidants taken orally on the dense cell formation in sickle cell patients. It involved the use of blood plasma taken from a healthy donor (with normal hemoglobin) of AB blood type who had consumed different types of antioxidants orally. By suspending sickle erythrocytes in such plasma and exposing them to the deoxy-oxy cycling, the degree of dense cell formation was determined. The degree of inhibition in vitro by antioxidants taken orally may be related to their efficacy in inhibiting dense cell formation in the patients. On the basis of these in vivo and ex vivo studies, we propose that a cocktail of antioxidants would have beneficial effects in lessening the incidence and severity of crisis and reducing anemia in sickle cell disease.

Authors+Show Affiliations

,

Philadelphia Biomedical Research Institute, King of Prussia, PA 19406, USA. stohnishi@aol.com

Source

The Journal of nutrition 131:3s 2001 Mar pg 1085S-92S

MeSH

Anemia, Sickle Cell
Antioxidants
Cell Count
Cells, Cultured
Cysteine
Dietary Supplements
Erythrocyte Membrane
Garlic
Humans
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts
Plants, Medicinal
Reactive Oxygen Species

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11238822

Citation

Ohnishi, S T., and T Ohnishi. "In Vitro Effects of Aged Garlic Extract and Other Nutritional Supplements On Sickle Erythrocytes." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 3s, 2001, 1085S-92S.
Ohnishi ST, Ohnishi T. In vitro effects of aged garlic extract and other nutritional supplements on sickle erythrocytes. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1085S-92S.
Ohnishi, S. T., & Ohnishi, T. (2001). In vitro effects of aged garlic extract and other nutritional supplements on sickle erythrocytes. The Journal of Nutrition, 131(3s), 1085S-92S.
Ohnishi ST, Ohnishi T. In Vitro Effects of Aged Garlic Extract and Other Nutritional Supplements On Sickle Erythrocytes. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1085S-92S. PubMed PMID: 11238822.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - In vitro effects of aged garlic extract and other nutritional supplements on sickle erythrocytes. AU - Ohnishi,S T, AU - Ohnishi,T, PY - 2001/3/10/pubmed PY - 2001/4/21/medline PY - 2001/3/10/entrez SP - 1085S EP - 92S JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 131 IS - 3s N2 - In the circulation of sickle cell anemia patients, a certain population of erythrocytes has an elevated density. These abnormally dense cells are believed to be at the root of the painful crisis and anemia of the patients. We have developed an in vitro method for the preparation of these heavier erythrocytes by a repeated deoxy-oxy cycling of erythrocytes from sickle cell anemia patients. By using this method, we studied whether certain nutritional supplements would inhibit the formation of dense cells in vitro. It was found that aged garlic extract (AGE) as well as its components with antioxidant activity, i.e., S-allylcysteine and N alpha-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine (fructosyl arginine), inhibited the formation of dense cells in vitro. Vitamin C, vitamin E and the spin-trapping agents, 5-diethoxyphophoryl-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and alpha-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-t-butylnitrone were all found to inhibit the formation of dense cells in vitro. These results suggest that, when extremely stretched sickle-shaped cells are formed by the repeated deoxy-oxy cycling, the erythrocyte membrane becomes susceptible to oxidative injury by reactive oxygen species. The protection of the erythrocyte membrane from such an oxidative injury would prevent the membranes from becoming leaky to the calcium ion, thus inhibiting the activation of the calcium-activated potassium efflux channel and the formation of dense cells. We also developed a new ex vivo method of studying the possible efficacy of antioxidants taken orally on the dense cell formation in sickle cell patients. It involved the use of blood plasma taken from a healthy donor (with normal hemoglobin) of AB blood type who had consumed different types of antioxidants orally. By suspending sickle erythrocytes in such plasma and exposing them to the deoxy-oxy cycling, the degree of dense cell formation was determined. The degree of inhibition in vitro by antioxidants taken orally may be related to their efficacy in inhibiting dense cell formation in the patients. On the basis of these in vivo and ex vivo studies, we propose that a cocktail of antioxidants would have beneficial effects in lessening the incidence and severity of crisis and reducing anemia in sickle cell disease. SN - 0022-3166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11238822/In_vitro_effects_of_aged_garlic_extract_and_other_nutritional_supplements_on_sickle_erythrocytes_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/herbalmedicine.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -