A pyrrolidinone derivative inhibits cytokine-induced iNOS expression and NF-kappaB activation by preventing phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB-alpha.J Biochem. 2001 Apr; 129(4):585-91.JB
We previously showed that 1-[3-(3-pyridyl)-acryloyl]-2-pyrrolidinone hydrochloride (N2733) inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion and improves the survival of endotoxemic mice. Since overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is largely responsible for the development of endotoxemic shock, and iNOS gene expression is mainly regulated by LPS and inflammatory cytokines, we studied whether or not N2733 affects interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced iNOS gene expression, NF-kappaB activation, and NF-kappaB inhibitor (IkappaB)-alpha degradation in cultured rat VSMCs. N2733 dose-dependently (10-100 microM) inhibited IL-1beta-stimulated NO production, and decreased IL-1beta-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression, as found on Northern and Western blot analyses, respectively. Gel shift assay and an immunocytochemical study showed that N2733 inhibited IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation and its nuclear translocation. Western blot analyses involving anti-IkappaB-alpha and anti-phospho IkappaB-alpha antibodies showed that IL-1beta induced transient degradation of IkappaB-alpha preceded by the rapid appearance of phosphorylated IkappaB-alpha, both of which were markedly blocked by N2733. N2733 blocked IL-1beta-induced phosphorylated IkappaB-alpha even in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor (MG115). Immunoblot analysis involving anti-IkappaB kinase (IKK)-alpha and anti-phosphoserine antibodies revealed that N2733 inhibited IL-1beta-induced IKK-alpha phosphorylation, whereas N2733 had no inhibitory effect on IL-1beta-stimulated p42/p44 MAP kinase or p38 MAP kinase activity. Our results suggest that the inhibitory action of N2733 toward IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB activation and iNOS expression is due to its blockade of the upstream signal(s) leading to IKK-alpha activation, and subsequent phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB-alpha in rat VSMCs.