Impact of hydrogenated fat on high density lipoprotein subfractions and metabolism.J Lipid Res 2001; 42(4):597-604JL
Relative to saturated fatty acids, trans-fatty acids/hydrogenated fat-enriched diets have been reported to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and either decrease or have no effect on high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. To better understand the effect of trans-fatty acids/hydrogenated fat on HDL cholesterol levels and metabolism, 36 subjects (female, n = 18; male, n = 18) were provided with each of three diets containing, as the major sources of fat, vegetable oil-based semiliquid margarine, traditional stick margarine, or butter for 35-day periods. LDL cholesterol levels were 155 +/- 27, 168 +/- 30, and 177 +/- 32 mg/dl after subjects followed the semiliquid margarine, stick margarine, and butter-enriched diets, respectively. HDL cholesterol levels were 43 +/- 10, 42 +/- 9, and 45 +/- 10 mg/dl, respectively. Dietary response in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels was similar to that in HDL cholesterol levels. HDL(2) cholesterol levels were 12 +/- 7, 11 +/- 6, and 14 +/- 7 mg/dl, respectively. There was virtually no effect of dietary fat on HDL3 cholesterol levels. The dietary perturbations had a larger effect on particles containing apoA-I only (Lp A-I) than apoA-I and A-II (Lp A-I/A-II). Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) activity was 13.28 +/- 5.76, 15.74 +/- 5.41, and 14.35 +/- 4.77 mmol x h(-1) x ml(-1), respectively. Differences in CETP, phospholipid transfer protein activity, or the fractional esterification rate of cholesterol in HDL did not account for the differences observed in HDL cholesterol levels. These data suggest that the saturated fatty acid component, rather than the trans- or polyunsaturated fatty acid component, of the diets was the putative factor in modulating HDL cholesterol response.