Face, palate, and craniofacial morphology in patients with a solitary median maxillary central incisor.Eur J Orthod 2001; 23(1):63-73EJ
The occurrence of a solitary median maxillary central incisor (SMMCI) is a very rare condition and might be a sign of a mild degree of holoprosencephaly. In this investigation, material from 10 patients, nine girls and one boy with a SMMCI (8-17 years of age) registered in orthodontic clinics was examined. The purpose was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and craniofacial morphology in this group of patients. Oral photographs, study casts, profile radiographs, and orthopantomograms were analysed. The study showed that this group of SMMCI patients were characterized by an indistinct philtrum, an arch-shaped upper lip, absence of the fraenulum of the upper lip, a complete or incomplete mid-palatal ridge, a SMMCI, and nasal obstruction or septum deviation. The craniofacial morphology of the nine girls, compared with normal standards for girls showed a short anterior cranial base, a short, retrognathic and posteriorly inclined maxilla, and a retrognathic and posteriorly inclined mandible. Furthermore, the sella turcica had a deviant morphology in five of the 10 subjects. The results indicate that the presence of a SMMCI should not be considered as a simple dental anomaly, since it may be associated with other clinical characteristics and more complex craniofacial malformations. It is therefore suggested that the SMMCI condition in future studies is classified according to clinical symptoms and craniofacial morphology.