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Effect of altering the variety of sensorially distinct foods, of the same macronutrient content, on food intake and body weight in men.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Jan; 55(1):19-28.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the effect of increasing the variety of sensorially distinct but nutritionally identical foods on appetite, food intake and body weight, over 7 days, in men.

DESIGN

Six younger, lean men (mean (s.d.) age 27.0 (2.9) y; weight 74.7 (3.9) kg; height 1.78 (0.03) m; body mass index (BMI) 23.6 (1.1) kg/m2) and six older, overweight men (mean (s.d.) age 39.7 (2.9) y; weight 89.2 (4.4) kg; height 1.78 (0.04) m; BMI 28.1 (0.5) kg/m2) were each studied three times during a 9 day protocol, whilst resident in the Human Nutrition Unit. On days 1-2, subjects consumed a medium fat (MF) maintenance diet (40% fat, 13% protein and 47% carbohydrate by energy) calculated at 1.6 x resting metabolic rate (RMR). On days 3-9 subjects had ad libitum access to MF foods (550 kJ/100 g) with every item the same macronutrient composition and energy density. Subjects had continuous ad libitum access to 5, 10 or 15 food items per day on the low-variety (LV), medium-variety (MV) and high-variety (HV) treatments, respectively. The order of treatments was randomized across subjects. Subjective hunger was tracked hourly during waking hours using visual analogue scales (VAS). Body weight (as a proxy of changes in energy balance) was measured before eating and after voiding, each morning.

RESULTS

Food and energy intake of the 12 men increased as the variety of foods increased, giving mean energy intakes of 10.13, 11.00 and 11.89 MJ/day on the LV, MV and HV treatments, respectively (F(2,20) = 10.32; P < 0.001). This effect was ascribable almost entirely to the lean men. Energy intake amounted to 1.57, 1.76 and 1.97 x RMR in the lean men and 1.33, 1.40 and 1.45 x RMR, for the overweight men on the LV, MV and HV diets, respectively. Weight changes amounted to -0.16, -0.28 and + 0.43 kg (lean) -1.03 and -1.52 kg and -0.66 kg (overweight), on the LV, MV and HV diets, respectively. The overweight men may have constrained their energy intake relative to expected requirements. This may have been due to a congnitive effect or an age effect. There was no significant group or diet effect on subjectively rated hunger.

CONCLUSIONS

These data suggest that increasing the variety of sensorially distinct foods that are virtually identical in composition can increase food and energy intake and in the short to medium term can alter energy balance.

Authors+Show Affiliations

The Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK. j.stubbs@rri.sari.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11303491

Citation

Stubbs, R J., et al. "Effect of Altering the Variety of Sensorially Distinct Foods, of the Same Macronutrient Content, On Food Intake and Body Weight in Men." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 1, 2001, pp. 19-28.
Stubbs RJ, Johnstone AM, Mazlan N, et al. Effect of altering the variety of sensorially distinct foods, of the same macronutrient content, on food intake and body weight in men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(1):19-28.
Stubbs, R. J., Johnstone, A. M., Mazlan, N., Mbaiwa, S. E., & Ferris, S. (2001). Effect of altering the variety of sensorially distinct foods, of the same macronutrient content, on food intake and body weight in men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(1), 19-28.
Stubbs RJ, et al. Effect of Altering the Variety of Sensorially Distinct Foods, of the Same Macronutrient Content, On Food Intake and Body Weight in Men. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(1):19-28. PubMed PMID: 11303491.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of altering the variety of sensorially distinct foods, of the same macronutrient content, on food intake and body weight in men. AU - Stubbs,R J, AU - Johnstone,A M, AU - Mazlan,N, AU - Mbaiwa,S E, AU - Ferris,S, PY - 2001/4/17/pubmed PY - 2001/5/22/medline PY - 2001/4/17/entrez SP - 19 EP - 28 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 55 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of increasing the variety of sensorially distinct but nutritionally identical foods on appetite, food intake and body weight, over 7 days, in men. DESIGN: Six younger, lean men (mean (s.d.) age 27.0 (2.9) y; weight 74.7 (3.9) kg; height 1.78 (0.03) m; body mass index (BMI) 23.6 (1.1) kg/m2) and six older, overweight men (mean (s.d.) age 39.7 (2.9) y; weight 89.2 (4.4) kg; height 1.78 (0.04) m; BMI 28.1 (0.5) kg/m2) were each studied three times during a 9 day protocol, whilst resident in the Human Nutrition Unit. On days 1-2, subjects consumed a medium fat (MF) maintenance diet (40% fat, 13% protein and 47% carbohydrate by energy) calculated at 1.6 x resting metabolic rate (RMR). On days 3-9 subjects had ad libitum access to MF foods (550 kJ/100 g) with every item the same macronutrient composition and energy density. Subjects had continuous ad libitum access to 5, 10 or 15 food items per day on the low-variety (LV), medium-variety (MV) and high-variety (HV) treatments, respectively. The order of treatments was randomized across subjects. Subjective hunger was tracked hourly during waking hours using visual analogue scales (VAS). Body weight (as a proxy of changes in energy balance) was measured before eating and after voiding, each morning. RESULTS: Food and energy intake of the 12 men increased as the variety of foods increased, giving mean energy intakes of 10.13, 11.00 and 11.89 MJ/day on the LV, MV and HV treatments, respectively (F(2,20) = 10.32; P < 0.001). This effect was ascribable almost entirely to the lean men. Energy intake amounted to 1.57, 1.76 and 1.97 x RMR in the lean men and 1.33, 1.40 and 1.45 x RMR, for the overweight men on the LV, MV and HV diets, respectively. Weight changes amounted to -0.16, -0.28 and + 0.43 kg (lean) -1.03 and -1.52 kg and -0.66 kg (overweight), on the LV, MV and HV diets, respectively. The overweight men may have constrained their energy intake relative to expected requirements. This may have been due to a congnitive effect or an age effect. There was no significant group or diet effect on subjectively rated hunger. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that increasing the variety of sensorially distinct foods that are virtually identical in composition can increase food and energy intake and in the short to medium term can alter energy balance. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11303491/Effect_of_altering_the_variety_of_sensorially_distinct_foods_of_the_same_macronutrient_content_on_food_intake_and_body_weight_in_men_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601117 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -