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Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Mar 29; 356(1407):351-67.PT

Abstract

Patterns of origination, extinction and standing diversity through time have been inferred from tallies of taxa preserved in the fossil record. This approach assumes that sampling of the fossil record is effectively uniform over time. Although recent evidence suggests that our sampling of the available rock record has indeed been very thorough and effective, there is also overwhelming evidence that the rock record available for sampling is itself distorted by major systematic biases. Data on rock outcrop area compiled for post-Palaeozoic sediments from Western Europe at stage level are presented. These show a strongly cyclical pattern corresponding to first- and second-order sequence stratigraphical depositional cycles. Standing diversity increases over time and, at the coarsest scale, is decoupled from surface outcrop area. This increasing trend can therefore be considered a real pattern. Changes in standing diversity and origination rates over time-scales measured in tens of millions of years, however, are strongly correlated with surface outcrop area. Extinction peaks conform to a random-walk model, but larger peaks occur at just two positions with respect to second-order stratigraphical sequences, towards the culmination of stacked transgressive system tracts and close to system bases, precisely the positions where taxonomic last occurrences are predicted to cluster under a random distribution model. Many of the taxonomic patterns that have been described from the fossil record conform to a species-area effect. Whether this arises primarily from sampling bias, or from changing surface area of marine shelf seas through time and its effect on biodiversity, remains problematic.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Palaeontology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK. a.smith@nhm.ac.uk

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11316484

Citation

Smith, A B.. "Large-scale Heterogeneity of the Fossil Record: Implications for Phanerozoic Biodiversity Studies." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, vol. 356, no. 1407, 2001, pp. 351-67.
Smith AB. Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001;356(1407):351-67.
Smith, A. B. (2001). Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 356(1407), 351-67.
Smith AB. Large-scale Heterogeneity of the Fossil Record: Implications for Phanerozoic Biodiversity Studies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Mar 29;356(1407):351-67. PubMed PMID: 11316484.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies. A1 - Smith,A B, PY - 2001/4/24/pubmed PY - 2001/6/22/medline PY - 2001/4/24/entrez SP - 351 EP - 67 JF - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences JO - Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci VL - 356 IS - 1407 N2 - Patterns of origination, extinction and standing diversity through time have been inferred from tallies of taxa preserved in the fossil record. This approach assumes that sampling of the fossil record is effectively uniform over time. Although recent evidence suggests that our sampling of the available rock record has indeed been very thorough and effective, there is also overwhelming evidence that the rock record available for sampling is itself distorted by major systematic biases. Data on rock outcrop area compiled for post-Palaeozoic sediments from Western Europe at stage level are presented. These show a strongly cyclical pattern corresponding to first- and second-order sequence stratigraphical depositional cycles. Standing diversity increases over time and, at the coarsest scale, is decoupled from surface outcrop area. This increasing trend can therefore be considered a real pattern. Changes in standing diversity and origination rates over time-scales measured in tens of millions of years, however, are strongly correlated with surface outcrop area. Extinction peaks conform to a random-walk model, but larger peaks occur at just two positions with respect to second-order stratigraphical sequences, towards the culmination of stacked transgressive system tracts and close to system bases, precisely the positions where taxonomic last occurrences are predicted to cluster under a random distribution model. Many of the taxonomic patterns that have been described from the fossil record conform to a species-area effect. Whether this arises primarily from sampling bias, or from changing surface area of marine shelf seas through time and its effect on biodiversity, remains problematic. SN - 0962-8436 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11316484/Large_scale_heterogeneity_of_the_fossil_record:_implications_for_Phanerozoic_biodiversity_studies_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2000.0768?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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