Involvement of cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide in the protection of rat pancreas afforded by low dose of lipopolysaccharide.J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001 Mar; 52(1):107-26.JP
Prostaglandins (PG), the products of arachidonate metabolism through cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, protect the pancreas from the acute damage. The existence of two isoforms of COX was documented including: COX-1, present in normal tissues and COX-2, expressed at the site of inflammation, such as induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pretreatment with low dose of LPS and activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) has been shown to prevent the injury caused by caerulein-induced pancreatitis (CIP) in the rat. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of COX-1 and COX-2 in the LPS-induced protection of the pancreas against CIP and the involvement of NOS in the activation of COX-PG system in the rats with CIP. CIP was produced by subcutaneous (s.c.) infusion of caerulein (5 microg/kg-h for 5 h) to the conscious rats. Protective dose of LPS, from Escherichia coli, (1 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) 15 min prior to the start of CIP. Nonselective inhibitor of COX; indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg), selective inhibitor of COX-1: resveratrol, or a highly selective inhibitors of COX-2: rofecoxib or NS-398 (2 or 10 mg/kg) were injected i.p. 15 min prior to the administration of LPS. COX-1 or COX-2 mRNA was determined by reverse transcription-polimerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the pancreatic tissue. Pancreatic blood flow (PBF) was measured by a laser Doppler flowmetry. PGE2 content in the pancreas was measured by radioimmunoassay. CIP was manifested by an increase of pancreatic weight and plasma amylase activity (by 500% and 700%, respectively) and it was confirmed by histological examination. CIP slightly increased pancreatic PGE2 generation (by 12%) and diminished PBF (by about 40%). LPS (1 mg/kg i.p.), given prior to the start of CIP, increased PGE2 generation in the pancreas (by 45%), reversed the histological manifestations of pancreatitis, reduced the rise in amylase blood level and improved PBF. Administration of nonselective inhibitor of COX; indomethacin (5 or 10 mg/kg i.p.) prior to the injection of LPS abolished its protective effects on CIP and reduced pancreatic PGE2 generation. Selective inhibitor of COX-1; resveratrol (10 mg/kg i.p.) given prior to the injection of LPS reversed its protective effects against CIP. Pretreatment with a selective inhibitors of COX-2: rofecoxib or NS-398 (10 mg/kg) attenuated LPS-induced pancreatic protection in the CIP rats. COX-1 expression was detected in the intact pancreas and was not significantly changed by CIP, LPS, indomethacin, NS-389 and their combination, while COX-2 mRNA expression appeared in the pancreas of ratssubjected to CIP and was significantly increased after LPS injection to these rats. Addition of selective COX-2 inhibitor; NS-389, or nonselective inhibitor of COX; indomethacin, enhanced COX-2 mRNA expression in the rats with CIP pretreated with LPS. Pretreatment of the rats with inhibitor of NOS; L-NNA (20 mg/kg i.p.), given together with LPS, 15 min prior to the start of caerulein overstimulation, resulted in complete reversion of LPS-induced pancreatic protection and decreased PGE2 generation stimulated by LPS. Addition to L-NNA of the substrate for NOS; L-arginine (100 mg/kg i.p.), restored pancreatic protection afforded by low dose of LPS and increased pancreatic PGE2 level in the rats with CIP. We conclude that: 1. increased pancreatic PGE2 generation, induced by low dose LPS pretreatment, contributes to the pancreatic resistance to acute damage produced by caerulein overstimulation and 2. the NO-system is involved in above stimulation of PGE2 generation and pancreatic protection against acute damage.