Reduction of carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver injury by IRFI 042, a novel dual vitamin E-like antioxidant.Free Radic Res. 2001 Apr; 34(4):379-93.FR
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity is likely the result of a CCl4 -induced free radical production which causes membrane lipid peroxidation and activation of transcription factors regulating both the TNF-alpha gene and the early-immediate genes involved in tissue regeneration. IRFI 042 is a novel vitamin E-like compound having a masked sulphydryl group in the aliphatic side chain. We studied the effect of IRFI 042 on CCl4 -induced liver injury. Liver damage was induced in male rats by an intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 (1 ml/kg in vegetal oil). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, liver malondialdehyde (MAL), hydroxyl radical formation (OH*), calculated indirectly by a trapping agent, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, plasma TNF-alpha, liver histology and hepatic mRNA levels for TNF-alpha were evaluated 48 h after CCl4 administration. Hepatic vitamin E (VE) levels were evaluated, in a separate group of animals, 2 h after CCl4 injection. A control group with vitamin E (100 mg/kg) was also treated in order to evaluate the differences versus the analogue treated groups. Intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride produced a marked increase in serum ALT activity (CCl4 = 404.61 +/- 10.33 U/L; Controls= 28.54 +/- 4.25 U/L), liver MAL (CCl4 = 0.67 +/- 0.16 nmol/mg protein; Controls= 0.13 +/- 0.06 nmol/mg protein), OH(7) levels assayed as 2,3-DHBA (CCl4 = 8.73 +/- 1.46 microM; Controls= 0.45 +/- 0.15 microM) and 2,5-DHBA (CCl4 = 24.61 +/- 3.32 microM; Controls= 2.75 +/- 0.93 microM), induced a severe depletion of GSH (CCl4 = 3.26 +/- 1.85 micromol/g protein; Controls= 17.82 +/- 3.13 micromol/g protein) and a marked decrease in VE levels (CCl4 = 5.67 +/- 1.22 nmol/g tissue; Controls= 13.47 +/- 3.21 nmol/g tissue), caused liver necrosis, increased plasma TNF-alpha levels (CCl4 = 57.36 +/- 13.24 IU/ml; Controls= 7.26 +/- 2.31 IU/ml) and enhanced hepatic mRNA for TNF-alpha (CCl4 = 19.22 +/- 4.38 a.u.; Controls= 0.76 +/- 0.36 a.u.). IRFI 042 (100 mg/kg, 30 min after CCl4 injection) blunted liver MAL (0.32 +/- 0.17 nmol/mg protein), decreased the serum levels of ALT (128.71 +/- 13.23 U/L), and restored the hepatic concentrations of VE (9.52 +/- 3.21 nmol/g tissue), inhibited OH* production (2,3-DHBA= 3.54 +/- 1.31 microM; 2,5-DHBA= 7.37 +/- 2.46 microM), restored the endogenous antioxidant GSH (12.77 +/- 3.73 mmol/g protein) and improved histology. Furthermore IRFI 042 treatment suppressed plasma TNF-alpha concentrations (31.47 +/- 18.25 IU/ml) and hepatic TNF-alpha mRNA levels (11.65 +/- 3.21 a.u.). The acute treatment with vitamin E failed to exert any protective effect against CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity. These investigations suggest that IRFI 042 treatment may be of benefit during free radical-mediated liver injury.