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Peroxisomal lipid degradation via beta- and alpha-oxidation in mammals.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2000; 32 Spring:73-87.CB

Abstract

Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is involved in the degradation of long chain and very long chain fatty acyl-(coenzyme A)CoAs, long chain dicarboxylyl-CoAs, the CoA esters of eicosanoids, 2-methyl-branched fatty acyl-CoAs (e.g. pristanoyl-CoA), and the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates di- and trihydroxycoprostanic acids (side chain of cholesterol). In the rat, straight chain acyl-CoAs (including the CoA esters of dicarboxylic fatty acids and eicosanoids) are beta-oxidized via palmitoyl-CoA oxidase, multifunctional protein-1 (which displays 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities) and peroxisomal thiolase. 2-Methyl-branched acyl-CoAs are degraded via pristanoyl-CoA oxidase, multifunctional protein-2 (MFP-2) (which displays 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities) and sterol carrier protein-X (SCPX; displaying 2-methyl-3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase activity). The side chain of the bile acid intermediates is shortened via one cycle of beta-oxidation catalyzed by trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase, MFP-2 and SCPX. In the human, straight chain acyl-CoAs are oxidized via palmitoyl-CoA oxidase, multifunctional protein-1, and peroxisomal thiolase, as is the case in the rat. The CoA esters of 2-methyl-branched acyl-CoAs and the bile acid intermediates, which also possess a 2-methyl substitution in their side chain, are shortened via branched chain acyl-CoA oxidase (which is the human homolog of trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase), multifunctional protein-2, and SCPX. The rat and the human enzymes have been purified, cloned, and kinetically and stereochemically characterized. 3-Methyl-branched fatty acids such as phytanic acid are not directly beta-oxidizable because of the position of the methyl-branch. They are first shortened by one carbon atom through the a-oxidation process to a 2-methyl-branched fatty acid (pristanic acid in the case of phytanic acid), which is then degraded via peroxisomal beta-oxidation. In the human and the rat, alpha-oxidation is catalyzed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (producing a 3-methylacyl-CoA), a 3-methylacyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase (resulting in a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA), and a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA lyase that cleaves the 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA into a 2-methyl-branched fatty aldehyde and formyl-CoA. The fatty aldehyde is dehydrogenated by an aldehyde dehydrogenase to a 2-methyl-branched fatty acid while formyl-CoA is hydrolyzed to formate, which is then converted to CO2. The activation, hydroxylation and cleavage reactions, and the hydrolysis of formyl-CoA are performed by peroxisomal enzymes; the aldehyde dehydrogenation remains to be localized whereas the conversion of formate to CO2 occurs mainly in the cytosol.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Departement/Moleculaire Celbiologie, Afdeling Farmacologie, Campus Gasthuisberg (O & N), Herestraat 49, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium. Guy.Mannaerts@med.kuleuven.ac.beNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11330072

Citation

Mannaerts, G P., et al. "Peroxisomal Lipid Degradation Via Beta- and Alpha-oxidation in Mammals." Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 32 Spring, 2000, pp. 73-87.
Mannaerts GP, Van Veldhoven PP, Casteels M. Peroxisomal lipid degradation via beta- and alpha-oxidation in mammals. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2000;32 Spring:73-87.
Mannaerts, G. P., Van Veldhoven, P. P., & Casteels, M. (2000). Peroxisomal lipid degradation via beta- and alpha-oxidation in mammals. Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics, 32 Spring, 73-87.
Mannaerts GP, Van Veldhoven PP, Casteels M. Peroxisomal Lipid Degradation Via Beta- and Alpha-oxidation in Mammals. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2000;32 Spring:73-87. PubMed PMID: 11330072.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Peroxisomal lipid degradation via beta- and alpha-oxidation in mammals. AU - Mannaerts,G P, AU - Van Veldhoven,P P, AU - Casteels,M, PY - 2001/5/2/pubmed PY - 2001/6/22/medline PY - 2001/5/2/entrez SP - 73 EP - 87 JF - Cell biochemistry and biophysics JO - Cell Biochem Biophys VL - 32 Spring N2 - Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is involved in the degradation of long chain and very long chain fatty acyl-(coenzyme A)CoAs, long chain dicarboxylyl-CoAs, the CoA esters of eicosanoids, 2-methyl-branched fatty acyl-CoAs (e.g. pristanoyl-CoA), and the CoA esters of the bile acid intermediates di- and trihydroxycoprostanic acids (side chain of cholesterol). In the rat, straight chain acyl-CoAs (including the CoA esters of dicarboxylic fatty acids and eicosanoids) are beta-oxidized via palmitoyl-CoA oxidase, multifunctional protein-1 (which displays 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities) and peroxisomal thiolase. 2-Methyl-branched acyl-CoAs are degraded via pristanoyl-CoA oxidase, multifunctional protein-2 (MFP-2) (which displays 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities) and sterol carrier protein-X (SCPX; displaying 2-methyl-3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase activity). The side chain of the bile acid intermediates is shortened via one cycle of beta-oxidation catalyzed by trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase, MFP-2 and SCPX. In the human, straight chain acyl-CoAs are oxidized via palmitoyl-CoA oxidase, multifunctional protein-1, and peroxisomal thiolase, as is the case in the rat. The CoA esters of 2-methyl-branched acyl-CoAs and the bile acid intermediates, which also possess a 2-methyl substitution in their side chain, are shortened via branched chain acyl-CoA oxidase (which is the human homolog of trihydroxycoprostanoyl-CoA oxidase), multifunctional protein-2, and SCPX. The rat and the human enzymes have been purified, cloned, and kinetically and stereochemically characterized. 3-Methyl-branched fatty acids such as phytanic acid are not directly beta-oxidizable because of the position of the methyl-branch. They are first shortened by one carbon atom through the a-oxidation process to a 2-methyl-branched fatty acid (pristanic acid in the case of phytanic acid), which is then degraded via peroxisomal beta-oxidation. In the human and the rat, alpha-oxidation is catalyzed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (producing a 3-methylacyl-CoA), a 3-methylacyl-CoA 2-hydroxylase (resulting in a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA), and a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA lyase that cleaves the 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA into a 2-methyl-branched fatty aldehyde and formyl-CoA. The fatty aldehyde is dehydrogenated by an aldehyde dehydrogenase to a 2-methyl-branched fatty acid while formyl-CoA is hydrolyzed to formate, which is then converted to CO2. The activation, hydroxylation and cleavage reactions, and the hydrolysis of formyl-CoA are performed by peroxisomal enzymes; the aldehyde dehydrogenation remains to be localized whereas the conversion of formate to CO2 occurs mainly in the cytosol. SN - 1085-9195 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11330072/Peroxisomal_lipid_degradation_via_beta__and_alpha_oxidation_in_mammals_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1385/cbb:32:1-3:73 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -