[From gene to disease; from DNA 'mismatch' repair genes to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal carcinoma].Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2001 Apr 21; 145(16):780-2.NT
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is the most common autosomal dominant condition associated with early-onset colorectal cancer and the occurrence of cancer at other anatomical sites, i.e. endometrium, stomach, small intestine, urinary tract and ovaries, at an early age. Germline mutations in one of five DNA mismatch repair genes: MSH2, MLH1, PMS1, PMS2, and MSH6, predispose to HNPCC. Tumours of HNPCC patients display a high level of genomic instability, usually observed as changes in repeat numbers of simple repetitive sequences (microsatellite instability), which is a reflection of the malfunction of the DNA mismatch repair machinery.