Association between different attributes of physical activity and fat mass in untrained, endurance- and resistance-trained men.Eur J Appl Physiol 2001; 84(4):310-20EJ
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess different attributes of physical activity and fitness and their relationship to nutritional state in endurance- and resistance-trained, compared to untrained men. The subjects were 42 men matched for age, of which 13 were untrained [UT, mean age 30.2 years, mean height 180.7 cm, mean body mass 83.6 kg, mean body mass index (BMI) 25.6 kg.m-2], 14 were endurance-trained athletes (ET, mean age 29.6 years, mean height 178.4 cm, mean body mass 74.0 kg, mean BMI 23.2 kg.m-2) and 15 were resistance-trained athletes (RT, mean age 28.4 years, mean height 183.4 cm, mean body mass 94.1 kg, mean BMI 27.4 kg.m-2). Fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle mass (MM) and total body water (TBW) were assessed using anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis. Resting energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) and total energy expenditure (TEE) by a combination of IC and individually calibrated 24-h heart-rate monitoring. The activity related energy expenditure (AEE) and the physical activity level were calculated. Movements were assessed using pedometry. Aerobic fitness was determined using ergometry, muscle strength [quadriceps muscle (Famax), ischiocruralis muscle (Fbmax), biceps muscle (Fcmax), triceps muscle (Fdmax)] by computer tensiometry. Different time domain indexes of heart rate variability (HRV) were examined during sleep, rest and the whole day as an index of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. When compared with UT and RT, ET had reduced body masses and FM, but increased percentage TBW (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). FFM and MM were increased in RT, when compared with UT and ET (P < 0.01). ET had higher TEE, AEE, pedometry derived activities, oxygen consumption and power during vigorous exercise than RT and UT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Respiratory exchange ratio at moderate exercise intensities was increased in RT (P < 0.05). In the 12 time domain indexes of HRV 6 and 10 were higher in ET than in RT and UT respectively (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01, respectively) suggesting an increased SNS activity in ET. By contrast, Famax, Fcmax and Fdmax were elevated in RT (P < 0.01). FM was negatively associated with aerobic fitness, but not with muscle strength. We concluded that the physiological and metabolic adaptations to exercise and nutritional state differ between ET and RT subjects. Participation in RT results predominantly in changes in body composition and strength but not in energy expenditure, movements and SNS activity. The opposite was the case for ET. Aerobic fitness, physical activity, movements and activity of SNS were all increased but body mass and FM were decreased. The latter finding may support the idea that, with regard to possible health benefits, ET is more effective than RT.