Surgical treatment of the Müllerian duct remnants.J Pediatr Surg. 2001 Jun; 36(6):870-6.JP
Persistent Müllerian duct tissue in male individuals may result in an enlarged prostatic utricle (utricular cysts and utricle) or a Müllerian duct cysts, either distinctively or synonymously. In intersex patients Müllerian duct remnants (MDR) are an usual occurrence. Surgical excision is the definitive treatment of symptomatic remnants, as well as during the reconstruction of intersexual genitalia. Many approaches have been described. The authors review their experience in intersex patients.
From 1986 to 1999, the authors treated 111 patients with intersex disorders. The records of 47 patients raised as boys with MDR were reviewed. Based on the symptoms and the size of the remnants, in 32 patients the structures were removed. In 13 patients extirpation was done by perineal approach, in 9 by transperitoneal approach, and in the remaining 9 patients the combined abdominal and perineal approach were undertaken. In one patient the large prostatic utricle was extirpated by a posterior sagittal pararectal approach. Perineal approach was mainly used in younger asymptomatic children, with the prostatic utricle disclosed incidentally during genitography because of intersex disorders. Operation was performed only in cases in which the prostatic utricle was observed by cystoscopy or identified by Fogarty balloon catheter introduction into the prostatic utricle. In older patients these structures were discovered frequently after failed urethroplasty, or after symptoms of urinary infection, urinary retention, or epididymitis. We elected to use the transperitoneal approach based on the extension of these structures into the pelvis. The average age of patients at the time of surgery was 8.6 years, with a range of 1 to 30 years.
There were no rectal or bladder injuries during surgery. An older patient had temporary impotence after abdomino-perineal extirpation. The lack of ejaculation, seen in 5 patients, was related to frequent intra-utricular termination of the vas deferens. Posterior sagittal pararectal approach certainly enabled complete exposure and exact visualization of all structures, with considerably decreased bleeding. If gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy were necessary, the transperitoneal approach could not be avoided.
Surgical treatment of MDR in intersex patients varies according to the size of the utricle, and a double approach is often necessary. A high degree of success may be achieved with minimal morbidity. J Pediatr Surg 36:870-876.