Mapping the epitope in cadherin-like receptors involved in Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin interaction using phage display.J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 03; 276(31):28906-12.JB
In susceptible lepidopteran insects, aminopeptidase N and cadherin-like proteins are the putative receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Using phage display, we identified a key epitope that is involved in toxin-receptor interaction. Three different scFv molecules that bind Cry1Ab toxin were obtained, and these scFv proteins have different amino acid sequences in the complementary determinant region 3 (CDR3). Binding analysis of these scFv molecules to different members of the Cry1A toxin family and to Escherichia coli clones expressing different Cry1A toxin domains showed that the three selected scFv molecules recognized only domain II. Heterologous binding competition of Cry1Ab toxin to midgut membrane vesicles from susceptible Manduca sexta larvae using the selected scFv molecules showed that scFv73 competed with Cry1Ab binding to the receptor. The calculated binding affinities (K(d)) of scFv73 to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac toxins are in the range of 20-51 nm. Sequence analysis showed this scFv73 molecule has a CDR3 significantly homologous to a region present in the cadherin-like protein from M. sexta (Bt-R(1)), Bombyx mori (Bt-R(175)), and Lymantria dispar. We demonstrated that peptides of 8 amino acids corresponding to the CDR3 from scFv73 or to the corresponding regions of Bt-R(1) or Bt-R(175) are also able to compete with the binding of Cry1Ab and Cry1Aa toxins to the Bt-R(1) or Bt-R(175) receptors. Finally, we showed that synthetic peptides homologous to Bt-R(1) and scFv73 CDR3 and the scFv73 antibody decreased the in vivo toxicity of Cry1Ab to M. sexta larvae. These results show that we have identified the amino acid region of Bt-R(1) and Bt-R(175) involved in Cry1A toxin interaction.