Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States.
Pediatrics 2001; 107(6):1381-6Ped

Abstract

CONTEXT

Iron deficiency anemia in infants can cause developmental problems. However, the relationship between iron status and cognitive achievement in older children is less clear.

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the relationship between iron deficiency and cognitive test scores among a nationally representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents.

DESIGN

The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 1988-1994 provides cross-sectional data for children 6 to 16 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. Children were considered iron-deficient if any 2 of these values were abnormal for age and gender, and standard hemoglobin values were used to detect anemia. Scores from standardized tests were compared for children with normal iron status, iron deficiency without anemia, and iron deficiency with anemia. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of iron status and below average test scores, controlling for confounding factors.

RESULTS

Among the 5398 children in the sample, 3% were iron-deficient. The prevalence of iron deficiency was highest among adolescent girls (8.7%). Average math scores were lower for children with iron deficiency with and without anemia, compared with children with normal iron status (86.4 and 87.4 vs 93.7). By logistic regression, children with iron deficiency had greater than twice the risk of scoring below average in math than did children with normal iron status (odds ratio: 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.4). This elevated risk was present even for iron-deficient children without anemia (odds ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.2).

CONCLUSIONS

We demonstrated lower standardized math scores among iron-deficient school-aged children and adolescents, including those with iron deficiency without anemia. Screening for iron deficiency without anemia may be warranted for children at risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY, USA. jill_halterman@urmc.rochester.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11389261

Citation

Halterman, J S., et al. "Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Achievement Among School-aged Children and Adolescents in the United States." Pediatrics, vol. 107, no. 6, 2001, pp. 1381-6.
Halterman JS, Kaczorowski JM, Aligne CA, et al. Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics. 2001;107(6):1381-6.
Halterman, J. S., Kaczorowski, J. M., Aligne, C. A., Auinger, P., & Szilagyi, P. G. (2001). Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics, 107(6), pp. 1381-6.
Halterman JS, et al. Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Achievement Among School-aged Children and Adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics. 2001;107(6):1381-6. PubMed PMID: 11389261.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Iron deficiency and cognitive achievement among school-aged children and adolescents in the United States. AU - Halterman,J S, AU - Kaczorowski,J M, AU - Aligne,C A, AU - Auinger,P, AU - Szilagyi,P G, PY - 2001/6/5/pubmed PY - 2001/8/31/medline PY - 2001/6/5/entrez SP - 1381 EP - 6 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 107 IS - 6 N2 - CONTEXT: Iron deficiency anemia in infants can cause developmental problems. However, the relationship between iron status and cognitive achievement in older children is less clear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between iron deficiency and cognitive test scores among a nationally representative sample of school-aged children and adolescents. DESIGN: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III 1988-1994 provides cross-sectional data for children 6 to 16 years old and contains measures of iron status including transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. Children were considered iron-deficient if any 2 of these values were abnormal for age and gender, and standard hemoglobin values were used to detect anemia. Scores from standardized tests were compared for children with normal iron status, iron deficiency without anemia, and iron deficiency with anemia. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of iron status and below average test scores, controlling for confounding factors. RESULTS: Among the 5398 children in the sample, 3% were iron-deficient. The prevalence of iron deficiency was highest among adolescent girls (8.7%). Average math scores were lower for children with iron deficiency with and without anemia, compared with children with normal iron status (86.4 and 87.4 vs 93.7). By logistic regression, children with iron deficiency had greater than twice the risk of scoring below average in math than did children with normal iron status (odds ratio: 2.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.4). This elevated risk was present even for iron-deficient children without anemia (odds ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-5.2). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated lower standardized math scores among iron-deficient school-aged children and adolescents, including those with iron deficiency without anemia. Screening for iron deficiency without anemia may be warranted for children at risk. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11389261/Iron_deficiency_and_cognitive_achievement_among_school_aged_children_and_adolescents_in_the_United_States_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11389261 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -