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The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores.
Microbiology 2001; 147(Pt 6):1677-85M

Abstract

Vaccines which are efficacious against anthrax, such as the human vaccine, Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA), contain the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxins as the major protective immunogen. Although AVA protects against inhalational anthrax, the immune responses to and role in protection of PA and possibly other antigens have yet to be fully elucidated. Sera from animals immunized with a toxin-producing, unencapsulated live vaccine strain of Bacillus anthracis have been reported to have anti-spore activities associated with the antitoxin humoral response. The authors performed studies to determine whether anti-PA antibody (Ab)-containing preparations stimulated spore uptake by phagocytes and suppressed the germination of spores in vitro. AVA- and PA-immune sera from several species enhanced the phagocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages of spores of the virulent Ames and the Sterne vaccine strains. Antitoxin Abs appeared to contribute significantly, although not solely, to the enhanced uptake. Rabbit antisera to PA purified from either Sterne or a PA-producing pX01-cured recombinant, affinity-purified anti-PA IgG, and monkey antisera to AVA were used to assess the role of anti-PA ABS: Rabbit anti-PA Abs promoted the uptake of spores of the PA-producing strains Sterne, Ames and RP42, a mutant of Sterne producing only PA, but not of the pX01-Sterne-1 strain, Ames strain, or RP4, a mutant of Sterne with deletions in the loci encoding PA and the oedema factor (EF) toxin component and producing only the lethal factor toxin component. Rabbit anti-PA and monkey anti-AVA Abs also significantly inhibited spore germination in vitro compared to preimmune serum or medium. Spore-associated proteins recognized by anti-PA Abs were detected by electron microscopy and confirmed by immunoblotting of spore coat extracts. Thus, the anti-PA Ab-specific immunity induced by AVA has anti-spore activity and might have a role in impeding the early stages of infection with B. anthracis spores.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Divisions of Bacteriology and Pathology, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011, USA. welkos@ncisun1.ncifcrf.govNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11390699

Citation

Welkos, S, et al. "The Role of Antibodies to Bacillus Anthracis and Anthrax Toxin Components in Inhibiting the Early Stages of Infection By Anthrax Spores." Microbiology (Reading, England), vol. 147, no. Pt 6, 2001, pp. 1677-85.
Welkos S, Little S, Friedlander A, et al. The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores. Microbiology (Reading, Engl). 2001;147(Pt 6):1677-85.
Welkos, S., Little, S., Friedlander, A., Fritz, D., & Fellows, P. (2001). The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores. Microbiology (Reading, England), 147(Pt 6), pp. 1677-85.
Welkos S, et al. The Role of Antibodies to Bacillus Anthracis and Anthrax Toxin Components in Inhibiting the Early Stages of Infection By Anthrax Spores. Microbiology (Reading, Engl). 2001;147(Pt 6):1677-85. PubMed PMID: 11390699.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The role of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores. AU - Welkos,S, AU - Little,S, AU - Friedlander,A, AU - Fritz,D, AU - Fellows,P, PY - 2001/6/8/pubmed PY - 2001/11/3/medline PY - 2001/6/8/entrez SP - 1677 EP - 85 JF - Microbiology (Reading, England) JO - Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) VL - 147 IS - Pt 6 N2 - Vaccines which are efficacious against anthrax, such as the human vaccine, Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA), contain the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxins as the major protective immunogen. Although AVA protects against inhalational anthrax, the immune responses to and role in protection of PA and possibly other antigens have yet to be fully elucidated. Sera from animals immunized with a toxin-producing, unencapsulated live vaccine strain of Bacillus anthracis have been reported to have anti-spore activities associated with the antitoxin humoral response. The authors performed studies to determine whether anti-PA antibody (Ab)-containing preparations stimulated spore uptake by phagocytes and suppressed the germination of spores in vitro. AVA- and PA-immune sera from several species enhanced the phagocytosis by murine peritoneal macrophages of spores of the virulent Ames and the Sterne vaccine strains. Antitoxin Abs appeared to contribute significantly, although not solely, to the enhanced uptake. Rabbit antisera to PA purified from either Sterne or a PA-producing pX01-cured recombinant, affinity-purified anti-PA IgG, and monkey antisera to AVA were used to assess the role of anti-PA ABS: Rabbit anti-PA Abs promoted the uptake of spores of the PA-producing strains Sterne, Ames and RP42, a mutant of Sterne producing only PA, but not of the pX01-Sterne-1 strain, Ames strain, or RP4, a mutant of Sterne with deletions in the loci encoding PA and the oedema factor (EF) toxin component and producing only the lethal factor toxin component. Rabbit anti-PA and monkey anti-AVA Abs also significantly inhibited spore germination in vitro compared to preimmune serum or medium. Spore-associated proteins recognized by anti-PA Abs were detected by electron microscopy and confirmed by immunoblotting of spore coat extracts. Thus, the anti-PA Ab-specific immunity induced by AVA has anti-spore activity and might have a role in impeding the early stages of infection with B. anthracis spores. SN - 1350-0872 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11390699/The_role_of_antibodies_to_Bacillus_anthracis_and_anthrax_toxin_components_in_inhibiting_the_early_stages_of_infection_by_anthrax_spores_ L2 - http://mic.microbiologyresearch.org/pubmed/content/journal/micro/10.1099/00221287-147-6-1677 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -