Efficacy of vaccines in chickens against highly pathogenic Hong Kong H5N1 avian influenza.Avian Dis 2001 Apr-Jun; 45(2):355-65AD
In 1997, highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) caused infections in poultry in Hong Kong and crossed into humans, resulting in a limited number of infections including 18 hospitalized cases and six associated deaths. The unique ability of this, AIV to infect both poultry and people raised a concern for the potential of humans to be biological as well as mechanical vectors of this AIV to poultry. The current study was undertaken to determine if existing vaccines and their technologies could be used during an outbreak to protect poultry. Commercial and experimental inactivated whole H5 AIV and baculovirus-expressed AIV H5 hemagglurinin protein vaccines provided protection from clinical signs and death in chickens after lethal challenge by human-origin HP H5N1 Hong Kong strains 156/97 and 483/97. The commercial and experimental inactivated vaccines had mean protective doses ranging from 0.25 to 0.89, which represents the milligrams of viral protein in the vaccines that provided protection from death in half of the birds. Furthermore, the vaccines reduced the ability of the challenge AIV to replicate in chickens and decreased the recovery of challenge AIV from the enteric and respiratory tracts, but the use of a vaccine will nor totally prevent AI virus replication and shedding. Existing vaccines will protect poultry from mortality and reduce virus replication from the new HP AIV strain that can infect both poultry and humans.