Molecular phylogeny of the subfamilies in Geometridae (Geometroidea: Lepidoptera).Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001 Jul; 20(1):65-77.MP
Molecular sequence data from three gene fragments were used to examine critically a provisional phylogenetic classification based on morphological characters of the Geometridae, one of the most species-rich families of moths. The sister group relationship between Geometridae and Drepanidae gained further support from the molecular analysis, which was based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and the first and second expansion segments of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Although the alignment of the second expansion segment contained regions with many gaps, it provided the most resolution of the gene fragments. Parsimony analysis of the combined data resulted in a cladogram in which species belonging to Drepanidae, Larentiinae, and Sterrhinae formed monophyletic groups. The Ennominae did not form a monophyletic group but rather were contained within a broader monophyletic group including Archiearinae, Geometrinae, and Alsophilinae (represented by only one species per group in the present study). The molecular results were used to explore further the relationship between Sterrhinae and Larentiinae, the question as to whether Ennominae actually represent a monophyletic group, and the relationships between Ennominae and some of the other subfamilies.