Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents. Subgingival microbiota in relation to experienced progression of periodontitis.J Clin Periodontol. 2001 Jul; 28(7):617-27.JC
In an Indonesian population deprived of regular dental care, the experienced progression of disease between baseline (1987) and follow-up (1994) was investigated in relation to the composition of the subgingival microbiota at follow-up. At baseline the age ranged from 15 to 25 years. Clinical and microbiological evaluation was completed in 158 of the 167 subjects available at follow-up.
Plaque index (PI), pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and attachment loss (AL) were scored at the approximal surfaces of all teeth and subgingival calculus on the approximal surfaces of the Ramfjord teeth only (number of sites with subgingival calculus: NSC). A pooled sample of the deepest pocket in each quadrant was evaluated using microbiological culture techniques.
At baseline the mean values of the clinical parameters were AL=0.35 mm, PI=1.01, BOP=0.80 PD=3.25 mm and NSC=6.04 and at follow-up AL=0.75 mm, PI=1.16, BOP=1.19, PD=3.34 mm and NSC=5.85. All parameters except PD and NSC showed a statistically significant increase. At follow-up the prevalence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was 40%, of Porphyromonas gingivalis 67%, of Prevotella intermedia 66%, of Fusobacterium nucleatum 79%, of Bacteroides forsythus 16%, of Campylobacter rectus 4%, and of P. micros 6%. No differences in clinical parameters were found between groups with or without these micro-organisms. In 129 subjects AL of > or =2 mm at > or =1 site was found. Logistic regression showed three significant odds-ratio's for experienced progressive periodontitis: Plaque index (12.2), gender (3.4) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (2.9).
The results of this retrospective study suggest that plaque is the most important parameter related to experienced disease progression, and that the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans may be associated with increased chance of disease progression.