Evaluation of the HUD lead hazard control grant program: early overall findings.Environ Res. 2001 Jun; 86(2):149-56.ER
This study evaluates the effectiveness of lead hazard control methods used in the Lead Hazard Control (LHC) grant program of U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. The LHC Program awards funds to local jurisdictions to address lead hazards in privately owned, low-income dwellings. Grantees in 14 cities, states, or counties collected environmental data in over 2600-treated dwellings making this the largest study of residential lead hazard control ever undertaken. Grantees employed a range of treatments, the most common being replacement of windows and repair of deteriorated lead-based paint. In this paper, dust lead loading levels and blood lead levels of children (6 months-6 years, if present) were observed at four periods of time (preintervention, immediate, and 6- and 12-months postintervention) in 1212 dwellings. Dust lead loading levels were also observed in a subset of these dwellings at 24- and 36-months postintervention. The geometric mean floor and window dust lead loadings declined at least 50 and 88% (P<0.0001), respectively, immediately postintervention. Three years later, floor dust lead loadings remained at or below the immediate postintervention levels. Window dust lead loadings had moderate increases, but remained substantially reduced from preintervention levels and below clearance standards. At 1 year after intervention, geometric mean age-adjusted blood lead levels had declined from 11.0 to 8.2 microg/dL, a 26% decline (P<0.0001). The LHC Program interventions produced blood lead declines similar to or greater than the percentage changes reported in earlier 1-year lead intervention studies.