GroEL-assisted dehydrogenase folding mediated by coenzyme is ATP-independent.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Jul 13; 285(2):277-82.BB
It has been commonly accepted that GroEL functions as a chaperone by modulation of its affinity for folding intermediates through binding and hydrolysis of ATP. However, we have found that NAD, as a coenzyme of d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), also stimulates the discharge of GAPDH folding intermediate from its stable complex with GroEL formed in the absence of ATP and assists refolding with the same yield as ATP/Mg(2+) does. The reactivation further increases when ATP is also present, but addition of Mg(2+) has no more effect. NADP, a coenzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, also releases its folding intermediates from GroEL and increases reactivation. Different from ATP, NAD triggers the release of GAPDH intermediates bound by GroEL via binding with GAPDH itself but not with GroEL, and the released intermediates all folded to native molecules without the formation of aggregation. The collaborative effects of coenzyme and GroEL mediate GroEL-assisted dehydrogenase folding in an ATP-independent way.