rCBF in hemorrhagic, non-hemorrhagic and mixed contusions after severe head injury and its effect on perilesional cerebral blood flow.Acta Neurochir Suppl. 2000; 76:21-5.AN
Intracerebral contusions can lead to regional ischemia caused by extensive release of excitotoxic aminoacids leading to increased cytotoxic brain edema and raised intracranial pressure. rCBF measurements might provide further information about the risk of ischemia within and around contusions. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was to compare the intra- and perilesional rCBF of hemorrhagic, non-hemorrhagic and mixed intracerebral contusions. In 44 patients, 60 stable Xenon-enhanced CT CBF-studies were performed (EtCO2 30 +/- 4 mmHg SD), initially 29 hours (39 studies) and subsequent 95 hours after injury (21 studies). All lesions were classified according to localization and lesion type using CT/MRI scans. The rCBF was calculated within and 1-cm adjacent to each lesion in CT-isodens brain. The rCBF within all contusions (n = 100) of 29 +/- 11 ml/100 g/min was significantly lower (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U) compared to perilesional rCBF of 44 +/- 12 ml/100 g/min and intra/perilesional correlation was 0.4 (p < 0.0005). Hemorrhagic contusions showed an intra/perilesional rCBF of 31 +/- 11/44 +/- 13 ml/100 g/min (p < 0.005), non-hemorrhagic contusions 35 +/- 13/46 +/- 10 ml/100 g/min (p < 0.01). rCBF in mixed contusions (25 +/- 9/44 +/- 12 ml/100 g/min, p < 0.0001) was significantly lower compared to hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic contusions (p < 0.02). Intracontusional rCBF is significantly reduced to 29 +/- 11 ml/100 g/min but reduced below ischemic levels of 18 ml/100 g/min in only 16% of all contusions. Perilesional CBF in CT normal appearing brain closed to contusions is not critically reduced. Further differentiation of contusions demonstrates significantly lower rCBF in mixed contusions (defined by both hyper- and hypodense areas in the CT-scan) compared to hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic contusions. Mixed contusions may evolve from hemorrhagic contusions with secondary increased perilesional cytotoxic brain edema leading to reduced cerebral blood flow and altered brain metabolism. Therefore, the treatment of ICP might be individually modified by the measurement of intra- and pericontusional cerebral blood.