Effects of temperature and concentration of the accelerators ethoxylated alcohols, diethyl suberate and tributyl phosphate on the mobility of [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxy butyric acid in plant cuticles.Pest Manag Sci 2001; 57(1):17-24PM
Intrinsic activities of monodisperse ethoxylated dodecanols (MEDs), diethyl suberate (DESU) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were investigated using Stephanotis floribunda leaf cuticular membranes (CMs) and [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxy butyric acid (2,4-DB) as a model solute. When sorbed in cuticular membranes, MEDs, DESU and TBP increase solute mobility and are called accelerators for this reason. With MEDs, dose-effect curves (log mobility vs accelerator concentration) were linear but, with DESU and TBP, curves convex to the x axes were obtained that approached a maximum at 90 and 150 g kg-1, respectively. Accelerators increased the mobility of 2,4-DB in the CMs by 9- to 48-fold, and effects were larger at lower temperatures (range 15-30 degrees C). Activation energy for diffusion of 2,4-DB was 105 kJ mol-1, decreasing with increasing accelerator concentrations to 26 kJ mol-1 with DESU at 90 g kg-1 and 64 kJ mol-1 with TBP at 150 g kg-1. Thus, the intrinsic activity of DESU was much higher than that of TBP, which implies that, for a given effect, less DESU than TBP would be needed. MEDs were also very effective accelerators, lowering activation energies to 36 kJ mol-1. Data are discussed in relation to increasing rates of foliar penetration of active ingredients at low temperatures.