Synergistic interactions of multiple mutations on catalysis during the hydroxylation reaction of p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase: studies of the Lys297Met, Asn300Asp, and Tyr385Phe mutants reconstituted with 8-Cl-flavin.Biochemistry. 2001 Jul 31; 40(30):8705-16.B
The oxygen transfer to p-hydroxybenzoate catalyzed by p-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PHBH) has been shown to occur via a C4a-hydroperoxide of the flavin. Two factors are likely to be important in facilitating the transfer of oxygen from the C4a-hydroperoxide to the substrate. (a) The positive electrostatic potential of the active site partially stabilizes the negative charge centered on the oxygen of the flavin-C4a-alkoxide leaving group during the transition state [Ortiz-Maldonado, M., Ballou, D. P., and Massey, V. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 8124-8137]. (b) The hydrogen-bonding network ionizes the substrate to promote its nucleophilic attack on the electrophilic C4a-hydroperoxide intermediate [Entsch, B., Palfey, B. A., Ballou, D. P., and Massey, V. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 17341-17349]. This ionization is also aided by the positive electrostatic potential of the active site [Moran, G. R., Entsch, B., Palfey, B. A., and Ballou, D. P. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 7548-7556]. Substituents on the flavin can specifically affect the stability of the alkoxide leaving-group, whereas changes to specific enzyme residues can affect the charge in the active site and the hydrogen-bonding network. We have used wild-type (WT) PHBH and several mutant forms, all with normal FAD and with 8-Cl-FAD substituted for FAD, to assess the relative contributions of the two effects. Lys297Met and Asn300Asp have decreased positive charge in the active site, and these variants engender approximately 35-fold slower hydroxylation rates than the WT enzyme. Substitution of 8-Cl-FAD in these mutant forms gives approximately 1.8-fold increases in hydroxylation rates, compared with a > or =4.8-fold increase for WT with this flavin. The hydroxylation catalyzed by Tyr385Phe, a mutant enzyme form with a disrupted hydrogen-bonding network that compromises the ionization of the substrate without changing the positive charge of the active site, is stimulated 1.5-fold by substituting the enzyme with 8-Cl-FAD. The substrate, tetrafluoro-p-hydroxybenzoate, is fully ionized in WT PHBH, but this phenolate is a poor nucleophile because of the electron-withdrawing effects of the fluorine substituents. With tetrafluoro-p-hydroxybenzoate as the substrate, substitution of FAD with 8-Cl-FAD in the WT enzyme stabilizes the leaving alkoxide and leads to a 2.3-fold increase in the hydroxylation rate compared to that with FAD. Either the use of substrates that do not communicate with the proton network or the mutation of amino acid residues that perturb this interaction may prevent a necessary conformational change that allows proper orientation between reactants during the hydroxylation reaction or permits the essential protonation of the initially formed nascent flavin-C4a-peroxide anion. Thus, both activation of substrate by the proton network and stabilization of the leaving alkoxide appear to be important for oxygen transfer catalyzed by PHBH. The full effect of the substituents on the flavin (4.8-fold) can only be realized when the optimal transition state can be achieved, and this optimal state is not fully realized with the mutant forms.