Macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (not T helper type 2 cytokines) is associated with severe forms of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis.J Infect Dis. 2001 Aug 15; 184(4):393-9.JI
It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is related to the development of T helper (Th) type 2 cytokine responses. The presence of Th1 and Th2 cytokines and the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were assessed by ELISA in nasopharyngeal secretions of infants with RSV infection. Infants with mild bronchiolitis had increased Th1 cytokines and reduced Th2 cytokines, compared with infants with upper respiratory tract illness alone. Severe bronchiolitis was characterized by a more balanced Th1-Th2 response that did not differ from that of infants with upper respiratory tract illness alone. In contrast, MIP-1alpha was markedly increased in infants with severe bronchiolitis. MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 levels also were inversely related to oxygen saturation (P<.005). Thus, the severity of RSV bronchiolitis appears to be related more to chemokine release than to Th2 cytokine production.