European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Registry studies in multiple myeloma.Semin Hematol. 2001 Jul; 38(3):219-25.SH
The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) Myeloma Registry, established in 1987, contains data on 1,368 allogeneic and more than 8,000 autologous stem cell transplants performed since 1983. Among autologous transplant patients, the median survival after transplantation is 50 months, and the actuarial survival at 10 years is 30%, with a plateau appearing at about 8 years. Factors of importance for a more favorable prognosis are lower age, response to chemotherapy, only one course of primary chemotherapy, stage I or II disease, and low beta(2)-microglobulin at diagnosis. Beneficial procedural factors associated with better outcome are a preparative regimen without total body irradiation (TBI), posttransplant interferon alfa maintenance treatment, and possibly tandem transplantation. In vitro graft purging, using CD34(+) selection, does not have any impact on survival. A case-matched analysis comparing autologous and allogeneic transplantation demonstrated significantly better survival in the former group, with median posttransplant survival times of 36 months and 18 months in the autologous and allogeneic groups, respectively. This result was in turn due to a markedly lower incidence of transplant-related death among the autotransplant patients: 13%, versus 41% for the allogeneic group. However, recent data on allogeneic transplants performed from 1994 to 1998 has demonstrated a decrease in treatment-mortality to 30%, and this has resulted in a prolongation of survival; in this analysis, the results are similar irrespective of the type of graft used, allogeneic bone marrow or blood stem cells. In a small case-matched analysis, transplantation with an identical twin donor was superior to both allogeneic and autologous transplantation with respect to survival and freedom from progression.