Renal ostodystrophy during the developing stage of maintenance dialysis in Transylvania. Early development of periarticular calcifications and beta 2 microglobulin amyloidosis in spite of a relatively good prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism.Ann Med Interne (Paris). 1998 Mar; 149(2):67-75.AM
Dialysis facilities have been introduced only recently in Transylvania with many limitations, in particular a standard high calcium dialysate, Al(OH)3 as phosphate binder and pharmacological doses of native vitamin D2, but neither CaCO3 nor 1 alpha hydroxylated vitamin D. Rheumatological complaints and metastatic calcifications were frequent, leading to suspect either overt hyperparathyroidism, adynamic bone disease or beta 2 microglobulin amyloidosis.
AIMS OF THE STUDY
Evaluate the prevalence of radiological osteitis fibrosa, amyloid osteoarthropathy and periarticular calcification and their link with PTH secretion, phophocalcic disorders, acidosis, bone turn over, aluminum and beta 2 microglobulin accumulation in the dialysis population of Sibiu (Transylvania).
The clinical and radiological rheumatological data of the 49 uremic patients dialyzed in Sibiu since 1990 were reviewed as well as the monthly routine monitoring of their plasma phosphocalcic parameters. Furthermore in July 1994, 36 of them had an X rays of the hands for evaluation of subperiosteal resorption of the phalanges, periarticular calcifications and carpal cysts as well as a determination of plasma concentrations of intact PTH (normal range: 10-55; optimal range: 100-200 pg/ml), osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, aluminum and 25 OH vitamin D.
The prevalence of subperiostal resorption of the phalanges was 8% and that of severe biological hyperparathyroidism (PTH > 400 pg/ml) 22%, whereas that of a relative hypoparathyroidism (PTH < 100 pg/ml) was 31%. Mean plasma concentrations of calcium was 2.07 +/- 0.15; of phosphate 2.50 +/- 0.35; of bicarbonate 15 +/- 2.0 mmol/l, of 25 OHD 30 +/- 20 ng/ml, of aluminum 1.1 +/- 0.5 mumol/l. Plasma PTH concentrations were negatively correlated to dialysis duration, and to plasma concentrations of aluminum, calcium and 25 OH vitamin D but not to those of phosphate and bicarbonate. Multivariate analysis showed however that only duration of dialysis and plasma aluminum concentration were independently and negatively correlated to plasma PTH concentrations. The prevalence of periarticular calcifications (26%) and of carpal cysts suggestive of beta 2 microglobulin amyloidosis (10%) were relatively high considering the young age of the population (42 years) and the short duration of dialysis (2.6 years). Patients with calcifications comparatively to those without calcifications were older, had longer duration on dialysis, higher prevalence of carpal cysts and higher plasma beta 2 microglobulin concentrations, lower plasma PTH (98 versus 313 pg/ml) and higher plasma aluminum concentration (1.3 versus 0.8 mumol/l). Patients with carpal cysts comparatively to those without cyst were older, had a longer duration on dialysis and a higher prevalence of periarticular calcifications.
a) In spite of no use of 1 alpha hydroxylated vitamin D derivatives, and poor control of hyperphosphatemia and acidosis, hyperparathyroidism declined with duration of dialysis due to the use of a high dialysate calcium concentration, Al(OH)3 as sole phosphate binder and high supplement of native vitamin D. b) Considering the relative young age and short duration on dialysis, the prevalence of periarticular calcifications and carpal cysts were high. c) Calcifications were possibly favored by relative hypoparathyroidism and moderate aluminum overload. d) The association of periarticular calcifications and subchondrial cysts suggest a causal relationship.