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MTBE inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor: uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats.

Abstract

The purpose of these studies was to extend previous evaluation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)* tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats to include concentrations more relevant to human exposure (4 and 40 ppm) and to determine the effects of coinhalation of the volatile fraction of unleaded gasoline on the tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion of MTBE. Groups of male F344 rats were exposed nose-only for 4 hours to 4, 40, or 400 ppm 14C-MTBE or to 20 or 200 ppm of the light fraction of unleaded gasoline (LFG) containing 4 or 40 ppm 14C-MTBE, respectively. To evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of LFG on MTBE tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion, rats were exposed for 4 hours on each of 7 consecutive days to 20 or 200 ppm LFG with MTBE (4 or 40 ppm) followed on the eighth day by a similar exposure to LFG containing 14C-MTBE. Subgroups of rats were evaluated for respiratory parameters, initial body burdens, rates and routes of excretion, and tissue distribution and elimination. The concentrations of MTBE and its chief metabolite, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), were measured in blood and kidney immediately after exposure, and the major urinary metabolites-2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol (2MePD)-were measured in urine. Inhalation of MTBE alone or as a component of LFG had no concentration-dependent effect on respiratory minute volume. The initial body burdens of MTBE equivalents achieved after 4 hours of exposure to MTBE did not increase linearly with exposure concentration. MTBE equivalents rapidly distributed to all tissues examined, with the largest percentages distributed to liver. The observed initial body burden did not increase linearly between 4 and 400 ppm. At 400 ppm, elimination half-times of MTBE equivalents from liver increased and from lung, kidney, and testes decreased compared with the two smaller doses. Furthermore, at 400 ppm the elimination half-time for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath was significantly shorter and the percentage of the initial body burden of MTBE equivalents eliminated as VOCs in breath increased significantly. These changes probably reflect a saturation of blood with MTBE at 400 ppm and strongly suggest that the uptake and fate of MTBE are notably different at exposure concentrations above and below 400 ppm. Single and repeated coexposure to 20 and 200 ppm LFG with MTBE had opposite effects on the total body burden of MTBE equivalents present at the end of exposures compared with those achieved after 4 and 40 ppm MTBE exposures: 20 ppm LFG increased and 200 ppm LFG significantly decreased the burdens of MTBE equivalents present. The effects of coexposure to LFG on blood levels of MTBE equivalents paralleled the effects on body burden. These differences in overall uptake of MTBE equivalents cannot be attributed to alterations of minute volume. The reason for the increase in overall uptake after 20-ppm LFG exposure is not clear. Decreased MTBE absorption (uptake) after single and repeated coexposure to 200 ppm LFG may be due to a decrease in solubility of MTBE in blood caused by inhalation of other hydrocarbons. Investigations on the blood/air partition coefficient of MTBE in the absence and presence of LFG would be needed to confirm this hypothesis. Single and repeated coexposure to either 20 or 200 ppm LFG significantly decreased the percentage of the initial body burden from MTBE equivalents in tissues, including liver, kidney, and testes, immediately and 72 hours after

Authors+Show Affiliations

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11504149

Citation

Benson, J M., et al. "MTBE Inhaled Alone and in Combination With Gasoline Vapor: Uptake, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion in Rats." Research Report (Health Effects Institute), 2001, pp. 73-94; discussion 95-109.
Benson JM, Barr EB, Krone JR. MTBE inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor: uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2001.
Benson, J. M., Barr, E. B., & Krone, J. R. (2001). MTBE inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor: uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats. Research Report (Health Effects Institute), (102), 73-94; discussion 95-109.
Benson JM, Barr EB, Krone JR. MTBE Inhaled Alone and in Combination With Gasoline Vapor: Uptake, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion in Rats. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2001;(102)73-94; discussion 95-109. PubMed PMID: 11504149.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - MTBE inhaled alone and in combination with gasoline vapor: uptake, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats. AU - Benson,J M, AU - Barr,E B, AU - Krone,J R, PY - 2001/8/16/pubmed PY - 2002/1/5/medline PY - 2001/8/16/entrez SP - 73-94; discussion 95-109 JF - Research report (Health Effects Institute) JO - Res Rep Health Eff Inst IS - 102 N2 - The purpose of these studies was to extend previous evaluation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)* tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion in rats to include concentrations more relevant to human exposure (4 and 40 ppm) and to determine the effects of coinhalation of the volatile fraction of unleaded gasoline on the tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion of MTBE. Groups of male F344 rats were exposed nose-only for 4 hours to 4, 40, or 400 ppm 14C-MTBE or to 20 or 200 ppm of the light fraction of unleaded gasoline (LFG) containing 4 or 40 ppm 14C-MTBE, respectively. To evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of LFG on MTBE tissue distribution, metabolism, and excretion, rats were exposed for 4 hours on each of 7 consecutive days to 20 or 200 ppm LFG with MTBE (4 or 40 ppm) followed on the eighth day by a similar exposure to LFG containing 14C-MTBE. Subgroups of rats were evaluated for respiratory parameters, initial body burdens, rates and routes of excretion, and tissue distribution and elimination. The concentrations of MTBE and its chief metabolite, tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), were measured in blood and kidney immediately after exposure, and the major urinary metabolites-2-hydroxyisobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol (2MePD)-were measured in urine. Inhalation of MTBE alone or as a component of LFG had no concentration-dependent effect on respiratory minute volume. The initial body burdens of MTBE equivalents achieved after 4 hours of exposure to MTBE did not increase linearly with exposure concentration. MTBE equivalents rapidly distributed to all tissues examined, with the largest percentages distributed to liver. The observed initial body burden did not increase linearly between 4 and 400 ppm. At 400 ppm, elimination half-times of MTBE equivalents from liver increased and from lung, kidney, and testes decreased compared with the two smaller doses. Furthermore, at 400 ppm the elimination half-time for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath was significantly shorter and the percentage of the initial body burden of MTBE equivalents eliminated as VOCs in breath increased significantly. These changes probably reflect a saturation of blood with MTBE at 400 ppm and strongly suggest that the uptake and fate of MTBE are notably different at exposure concentrations above and below 400 ppm. Single and repeated coexposure to 20 and 200 ppm LFG with MTBE had opposite effects on the total body burden of MTBE equivalents present at the end of exposures compared with those achieved after 4 and 40 ppm MTBE exposures: 20 ppm LFG increased and 200 ppm LFG significantly decreased the burdens of MTBE equivalents present. The effects of coexposure to LFG on blood levels of MTBE equivalents paralleled the effects on body burden. These differences in overall uptake of MTBE equivalents cannot be attributed to alterations of minute volume. The reason for the increase in overall uptake after 20-ppm LFG exposure is not clear. Decreased MTBE absorption (uptake) after single and repeated coexposure to 200 ppm LFG may be due to a decrease in solubility of MTBE in blood caused by inhalation of other hydrocarbons. Investigations on the blood/air partition coefficient of MTBE in the absence and presence of LFG would be needed to confirm this hypothesis. Single and repeated coexposure to either 20 or 200 ppm LFG significantly decreased the percentage of the initial body burden from MTBE equivalents in tissues, including liver, kidney, and testes, immediately and 72 hours after SN - 1041-5505 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11504149/MTBE_inhaled_alone_and_in_combination_with_gasoline_vapor:_uptake_distribution_metabolism_and_excretion_in_rats_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -