Therapeutic approach to chronic venous insufficiency and its complications: place of Daflon 500 mg.Angiology. 2001 Aug; 52 Suppl 1:S43-7.A
Early manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are edema, hyperpigmentation, and lipodermatosclerosis. Late complications are cutaneous ulceration and delayed healing. The specific hallmarks of this inflammation include CD68-positive infiltration into the dermal tissue, monocytes, and lymphocytes and enhanced endothelial permeability. This may lead to "fibrin cuff" formation. In addition, membrane adhesion molecules are present and cytokine expression is seen. In one experimental model of mesenteric venous hypertension, the inflammatory process was detected in its earliest stages. This was evident in the form of neutrophilic leukocyte adhesion to venular endothelium as well as migration of cells across the endothelium and basement membrane into the interstitial space. Simultaneously, parenchymal cell death was detected. This suggests that the mechanism that triggers the inflammatory reaction is venous hypertension. This may cause venous distension and a shift in fluid shear stress. Our observations suggest that patients with venous insufficiency demonstrate circulatory humoral stimulators for leukocyte activation. Otherwise, there is evidence that the inflammatory reaction is limited to the region of the venous ulceration or at least to the skin areas with severe microangiopathy. It may be that activated leukocytes traverse perivascular cuffs and release active transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) which has been found to be elevated exclusively in areas of clinically active CVI. Surgical intervention markedly decreases the number of dysfunctional vein segments and allows pharmacologic agents to protect normal structures from continuing damage. Daflon 500 mg, the purified micronized flavonoid fraction containing 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin, acts favorably in venous ulcer treatment by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins and free radicals. It decreases bradykinin-induced microvascular leakage and may act favorably to inhibit leukocyte activation, trapping, and migration. Clinically, edema is reduced, ulcer healing is accelerated, and leukocyte trapping diminished. The action of micronized purified flavonoid fraction is beginning to be better understood, and as further knowledge is gained, better pharmacologic control of CVI is a tantalizing promise.