Transient-state and steady-state kinetic studies of the mechanism of NADH-dependent aldehyde reduction catalyzed by xylose reductase from the yeast Candida tenuis.Biochemistry. 2001 Aug 28; 40(34):10371-81.B
Microbial xylose reductase, a representative aldo-keto reductase of primary sugar metabolism, catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of D-xylose with a turnover number approximately 100 times that of human aldose reductase for the same reaction. To determine the mechanistic basis for that physiologically relevant difference and pinpoint features that are unique to the microbial enzyme among other aldo/keto reductases, we carried out stopped-flow studies with wild-type xylose reductase from the yeast Candida tenuis. Analysis of transient kinetic data for binding of NAD(+) and NADH, and reduction of D-xylose and oxidation of xylitol at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C provided estimates of rate constants for the following mechanism: E + NADH right arrow over left arrow E.NADH right arrow over left arrow E.NADH + D-xylose right arrow over left arrow E.NADH.D-xylose right arrow over left arrow E.NAD(+).xylitol right arrow over left arrow E.NAD(+) right arrow over left arrow E.NAD(+) right arrow over left arrow E + NAD(+). The net rate constant of dissociation of NAD(+) is approximately 90% rate limiting for k(cat) of D-xylose reduction. It is controlled by the conformational change which precedes nucleotide release and whose rate constant of 40 s(-)(1) is 200 times that of completely rate-limiting E.NADP(+) --> E.NADP(+) step in aldehyde reduction catalyzed by human aldose reductase [Grimshaw, C. E., et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 14356-14365]. Hydride transfer from NADH occurs with a rate constant of approximately 170 s(-1). In reverse reaction, the E.NADH --> E.NADH step takes place with a rate constant of 15 s(-1), and the rate constant of ternary-complex interconversion (3.8 s(-1)) largely determines xylitol turnover (0.9 s(-1)). The bound-state equilibrium constant for C. tenuis xylose reductase is estimated to be approximately 45 (=170/3.8), thus greatly favoring aldehyde reduction. Formation of productive complexes, E.NAD(+) and E.NADH, leads to a 7- and 9-fold decrease of dissociation constants of initial binary complexes, respectively, demonstrating that 12-fold differential binding of NADH (K(i) = 16 microM) vs NAD(+) (K(i) = 195 microM) chiefly reflects difference in stabilities of E.NADH and E.NAD(+). Primary deuterium isotope effects on k(cat) and k(cat)/K(xylose) were, respectively, 1.55 +/- 0.09 and 2.09 +/- 0.31 in H(2)O, and 1.26 +/- 0.06 and 1.58 +/- 0.17 in D(2)O. No deuterium solvent isotope effect on k(cat)/K(xylose) was observed. When deuteration of coenzyme selectively slowed the hydride transfer step, (D)()2(O)(k(cat)/K(xylose)) was inverse (0.89 +/- 0.14). The isotope effect data suggest a chemical mechanism of carbonyl reduction by xylose reductase in which transfer of hydride ion is a partially rate-limiting step and precedes the proton-transfer step.