Diet and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in Italy.Int J Cancer. 2001 Sep; 93(6):911-5.IJ
To assess the dietary correlates of cancer of the ovary, the consumption of a wide range of food groups has been investigated in a case-control study conducted between January 1992 and September 1999 in 4 Italian areas. Cases were 1,031 women with incident, histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer; controls were 2,411 women admitted to the same network of hospitals as the cases for acute, non-malignant and non-gynecological conditions, unrelated to hormonal or digestive tract diseases or to long-term modifications of diet. The subjects' usual diet was investigated through a validated food frequency questionnaire including 78 foods and recipes, then grouped into 18 food groups. Odds ratios (OR), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models including terms for age, study center, education, year at interview, parity, oral contraceptive use and energy intake. Significant trends of increasing risk emerged for red meat (OR = 1.53 for the highest compared with the lowest quintile of consumption), whereas inverse associations were observed for consumption of fish (OR = 0.51), raw (OR = 0.47) and cooked vegetables (OR = 0.65), and pulses (OR = 0.77).