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Intermittent umbilical cord occlusion in the ovine fetus: effects on blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon and on pancreatic development.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether repetitive umbilical cord occlusion resulting in fetal hypoxemia but not cumulative acidosis also affects fetal glucose levels and the levels of the regulatory hormones insulin and glucagon, by altering glucose delivery and with repetitive insults by inducing fetal glucose production, thus possibly affecting pancreatic development.

METHODS

Fifteen chronically catheterized fetal sheep were studied over 21 days. Umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) (duration 90 seconds) were performed every 30 minutes for 3-4 hours each day. Fetal arterial blood was sampled at predetermined times on days 1, 9, and 18 for blood gases, pH, glucose, lactate, insulin, and glucagon. When animals were sacrificed, fetal pancreatic tissues were collected for insulin immunostaining.

RESULTS

Blood glucose decreased acutely with each UCO but showed a cumulative increase of approximately 30% over the course of each sampling day. Although plasma insulin levels also increased over the course of sampling on days 9 and 18, plasma glucagon levels remained unchanged throughout the study. The percentage of pancreatic islet cells immunopositive for insulin, which averaged 67%, was also unchanged in experimental compared with control animals.

CONCLUSION

Umbilical cord occlusion during the latter part of pregnancy, which caused severe but limited hypoxemia, also resulted in acute decreases in blood glucose levels because of reduced exogenous glucose delivery and a cumulative increase in glucose in response to repetitive insults, possibly by inducing fetal glucose production, enhancing glucose delivery, or both. However, repetitive UCO as studied had minimal effect on plasma insulin levels and no effect on glucagon levels or on pancreatic immunostaining for insulin, and thus had no evident effect on pancreatic development.

Authors+Show Affiliations

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CIHR Group in Fetal and Neonatal Health and Development, Lawson Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

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Source

MeSH

Animals
Blood Glucose
Constriction
Fetal Blood
Glucagon
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Immunohistochemistry
Insulin
Lactic Acid
Pancreas
Sheep
Umbilical Cord

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11525893

Citation

Czikk, M J., et al. "Intermittent Umbilical Cord Occlusion in the Ovine Fetus: Effects On Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon and On Pancreatic Development." Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, vol. 8, no. 4, 2001, pp. 191-7.
Czikk MJ, Green LR, Kawagoe Y, et al. Intermittent umbilical cord occlusion in the ovine fetus: effects on blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon and on pancreatic development. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2001;8(4):191-7.
Czikk, M. J., Green, L. R., Kawagoe, Y., McDonald, T. J., Hill, D. J., & Richardson, B. S. (2001). Intermittent umbilical cord occlusion in the ovine fetus: effects on blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon and on pancreatic development. Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation, 8(4), pp. 191-7.
Czikk MJ, et al. Intermittent Umbilical Cord Occlusion in the Ovine Fetus: Effects On Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Glucagon and On Pancreatic Development. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2001;8(4):191-7. PubMed PMID: 11525893.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intermittent umbilical cord occlusion in the ovine fetus: effects on blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon and on pancreatic development. AU - Czikk,M J, AU - Green,L R, AU - Kawagoe,Y, AU - McDonald,T J, AU - Hill,D J, AU - Richardson,B S, PY - 2001/8/30/pubmed PY - 2001/10/26/medline PY - 2001/8/30/entrez SP - 191 EP - 7 JF - Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation JO - J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. VL - 8 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To determine whether repetitive umbilical cord occlusion resulting in fetal hypoxemia but not cumulative acidosis also affects fetal glucose levels and the levels of the regulatory hormones insulin and glucagon, by altering glucose delivery and with repetitive insults by inducing fetal glucose production, thus possibly affecting pancreatic development. METHODS: Fifteen chronically catheterized fetal sheep were studied over 21 days. Umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs) (duration 90 seconds) were performed every 30 minutes for 3-4 hours each day. Fetal arterial blood was sampled at predetermined times on days 1, 9, and 18 for blood gases, pH, glucose, lactate, insulin, and glucagon. When animals were sacrificed, fetal pancreatic tissues were collected for insulin immunostaining. RESULTS: Blood glucose decreased acutely with each UCO but showed a cumulative increase of approximately 30% over the course of each sampling day. Although plasma insulin levels also increased over the course of sampling on days 9 and 18, plasma glucagon levels remained unchanged throughout the study. The percentage of pancreatic islet cells immunopositive for insulin, which averaged 67%, was also unchanged in experimental compared with control animals. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord occlusion during the latter part of pregnancy, which caused severe but limited hypoxemia, also resulted in acute decreases in blood glucose levels because of reduced exogenous glucose delivery and a cumulative increase in glucose in response to repetitive insults, possibly by inducing fetal glucose production, enhancing glucose delivery, or both. However, repetitive UCO as studied had minimal effect on plasma insulin levels and no effect on glucagon levels or on pancreatic immunostaining for insulin, and thus had no evident effect on pancreatic development. SN - 1071-5576 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11525893/Intermittent_umbilical_cord_occlusion_in_the_ovine_fetus:_effects_on_blood_glucose_insulin_and_glucagon_and_on_pancreatic_development_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/diabetesmedicines.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -