A second exon splicing silencer within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat exon 2 represses splicing of Tat mRNA and binds protein hnRNP H.J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 02; 276(44):40464-75.JB
An equilibrium between spliced and unspliced primary transcripts is essential for retrovirus multiplication. This equilibrium is maintained by the presence of inefficient splice sites. The A3 3'-splice site of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) is required for Tat mRNA production. The infrequent utilization of this splice site has been attributed to the presence of a suboptimal polypyrimidine tract and an exonic splicing silencer (ESS2) in tat exon 2 approximately 60 nucleotides downstream of 3'-splice site A3. Here, using site-directed mutagenesis followed by analysis of splicing in vitro and in HeLa cells, we show that the 5' extremity of tat exon 2 contains a second exonic splicing silencer (ESS2p), which acts to repress splice site A3. The inhibitory property of this exonic silencer was active when inserted downstream of another HIV-1 3'-splice site (A2). Protein hnRNP H binds to this inhibitory element, and two U-to-C substitutions within the ESS2p element cause a decreased hnRNP H affinity with a concomitant increase in splicing efficiency at 3'-splice site A3. This suggests that hnRNP H is directly involved in splicing inhibition. We propose that hnRNP H binds to the HIV-1 ESS2p element and competes with U2AF(35) for binding to the exon sequence flanking 3'-splice site A3. This binding results in the inhibition of splicing at 3'-splice site A3.