[T-cell-depleted HLA non-identical bone marrow transplantation in the child: prevention of graft-versus-host reaction by administration of donor T lymphocytes alloreactive against the recipient].J Soc Biol. 2001; 195(1):65-8.JS
The success of HSCT from HLA partially disparate donors depends on the development of new strategies able to efficiently prevent GVHD and to protect patients from infections and relapse. Using an immunotoxin (IT) directed against the alpha-chain (p55) of the human IL-2r (RFT5-SMPT-dgA), we have previously shown that it is possible to kill mature T cells activated towards a specific HLA complex by a one-way MLR. We designed a clinical trial assessing the effect of infusing increasing doses of T lymphocytes in the setting of children recipients of non HLA genetically identical HSCT. Thirteen patients have been enrolled from September 1998 to April 2000 and fourteen HSCT have been realized in 13 patients (pts). Donors were MUD in 3 cases and familial HLA partially disparate in the remaining cases. Allodepleted donor T cells were injected between day +14 and day +30 provided that ATG was undetectable in the serum and blood PMN counts was > 500/microliter. The mean age of these patients was 17 months (range 1 to 42). Diagnosis included immune deficient and malignant hemopathies. Three patients received 1 x 10(5) allodepleted T cell/kg, 7 patients received 4 x 10(5)/kg and 4 patients received 6 x 10(5)/kg allodepleted T cells. Full inhibition of MLR was achieved in 12 out of 14 cases. In two cases, a residual T cell reactivity to the recipient was observed (4 to 5%) and patients developed grade II aGVHD. aGVHD occurred in 4 out of 11 grafted patients (all grade II). No chronic GVHD has developed, so far. Three patients died from severe VOD or PHT at day +34, day 51 and day +166, while one infected patient by VZV, CMV and EBV before HSCT died 6 months after transplantation from meningoencephalitis and another patient died from relapse at day +291. The patient for which there was no engraftment died at day +48 from staphylococcus infection. Overall survival is 54%, with a median follow up of 8 months; the mean time to reach a blood lymphocyte count > 500 was 41 days, to reach a CD3 count > 300 microliters 63 days (20-111), CD4 > 200 microliters 97 days and positive mitogen-induced proliferation 90 days. In three patients, a tetanus-toxoid positive proliferation was detected before immunization. From this intermediate analysis, we conclude that 1) specific allodepletion is an effective approach to prevent aGVHD in a haploincompatible setting, 2) data on immunological reconstitution suggest that infused T cells do survive and expand. A higher number of patients must be enrolled to determine the optimal number of T cells to infuse.