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Betel nut and tobacco chewing; potential risk factors of cancer of oesophagus in Assam, India.

Abstract

Cancer of the oesophagus is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in Assam, in north-eastern India, and ranks second for females. The chewing of betel nut, with or without tobacco and prepared in various ways, is a common practice in the region and a case-control study has been designed to study the pattern of risk associated with different ways of preparing and chewing the nuts. 358 newly diagnosed male patients and 144 female have been interviewed together with 2 control subjects for each case chosen at random from among the attendants who accompanied patients to hospital. There were significant trends in risk ratios associated with the frequency of chewing each day, with the duration of chewing in years and with the age at which the habit was started that were apparent for both males and females and which remained significant after allowance was made for other known risk factors, notably tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted ratios, in comparison with non-chewers, were 13.3 M and 5.7 F for chewing more than 20 times a day, 10.6 M and 7.2 F for persons who had chewed for more than 20 years and 10.3 M and 5.3 F for those who had started before the age of 20. Among the different combinations of ingredients that were chewed the adjusted odds ratios were highest for those who had been using fermented betel nut with any form of tobacco (7.1 M and 3.6 F). The risk associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, which are high in some parts of the world, were less in Assam than those associated with the chewing of betel nut.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Regional Medical Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, North East Region, Assam, Dibrugarh, India.

    , ,

    Source

    British journal of cancer 85:5 2001 Sep 01 pg 661-7

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Areca
    Case-Control Studies
    Deglutition
    Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
    Esophageal Neoplasms
    Female
    Humans
    India
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Plants, Medicinal
    Plants, Toxic
    Sex Distribution
    Smoking
    Time Factors
    Tobacco, Smokeless

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11531248

    Citation

    Phukan, R K., et al. "Betel Nut and Tobacco Chewing; Potential Risk Factors of Cancer of Oesophagus in Assam, India." British Journal of Cancer, vol. 85, no. 5, 2001, pp. 661-7.
    Phukan RK, Ali MS, Chetia CK, et al. Betel nut and tobacco chewing; potential risk factors of cancer of oesophagus in Assam, India. Br J Cancer. 2001;85(5):661-7.
    Phukan, R. K., Ali, M. S., Chetia, C. K., & Mahanta, J. (2001). Betel nut and tobacco chewing; potential risk factors of cancer of oesophagus in Assam, India. British Journal of Cancer, 85(5), pp. 661-7.
    Phukan RK, et al. Betel Nut and Tobacco Chewing; Potential Risk Factors of Cancer of Oesophagus in Assam, India. Br J Cancer. 2001 Sep 1;85(5):661-7. PubMed PMID: 11531248.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Betel nut and tobacco chewing; potential risk factors of cancer of oesophagus in Assam, India. AU - Phukan,R K, AU - Ali,M S, AU - Chetia,C K, AU - Mahanta,J, PY - 2001/9/5/pubmed PY - 2001/10/5/medline PY - 2001/9/5/entrez SP - 661 EP - 7 JF - British journal of cancer JO - Br. J. Cancer VL - 85 IS - 5 N2 - Cancer of the oesophagus is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in males in Assam, in north-eastern India, and ranks second for females. The chewing of betel nut, with or without tobacco and prepared in various ways, is a common practice in the region and a case-control study has been designed to study the pattern of risk associated with different ways of preparing and chewing the nuts. 358 newly diagnosed male patients and 144 female have been interviewed together with 2 control subjects for each case chosen at random from among the attendants who accompanied patients to hospital. There were significant trends in risk ratios associated with the frequency of chewing each day, with the duration of chewing in years and with the age at which the habit was started that were apparent for both males and females and which remained significant after allowance was made for other known risk factors, notably tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted ratios, in comparison with non-chewers, were 13.3 M and 5.7 F for chewing more than 20 times a day, 10.6 M and 7.2 F for persons who had chewed for more than 20 years and 10.3 M and 5.3 F for those who had started before the age of 20. Among the different combinations of ingredients that were chewed the adjusted odds ratios were highest for those who had been using fermented betel nut with any form of tobacco (7.1 M and 3.6 F). The risk associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, which are high in some parts of the world, were less in Assam than those associated with the chewing of betel nut. SN - 0007-0920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11531248/Betel_nut_and_tobacco_chewing L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/bjoc.2001.1920 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -