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Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis.
J Lithotr Stone Dis 1991; 3(1):18-27JL

Abstract

Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating and increased physical activity. Seasonal variations in phosphorus excretion are probably dietary in origin. The summertime was characterized by an increased propensity for the crystallization of uric acid but not of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11536932

Citation

Stuart RO 2nd, , et al. "Seasonal Variations in Urinary Risk Factors Among Patients With Nephrolithiasis." The Journal of Lithotripsy & Stone Disease, vol. 3, no. 1, 1991, pp. 18-27.
Stuart RO 2nd , Hill K, Poindexter J, et al. Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis. J Lithotr Stone Dis. 1991;3(1):18-27.
Stuart RO 2nd, ., Hill, K., Poindexter, J., & Pak, C. Y. (1991). Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis. The Journal of Lithotripsy & Stone Disease, 3(1), pp. 18-27.
Stuart RO 2nd , et al. Seasonal Variations in Urinary Risk Factors Among Patients With Nephrolithiasis. J Lithotr Stone Dis. 1991;3(1):18-27. PubMed PMID: 11536932.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Seasonal variations in urinary risk factors among patients with nephrolithiasis. AU - Stuart RO 2nd,, AU - Hill,K, AU - Poindexter,J, AU - Pak,C Y, PY - 1991/1/1/pubmed PY - 2001/9/11/medline PY - 1991/1/1/entrez KW - NASA Discipline Number 18-10 KW - NASA Discipline Regulatory Physiology KW - NASA Program Biomedicine KW - Non-NASA Center SP - 18 EP - 27 JF - The Journal of lithotripsy & stone disease JO - J Lithotr Stone Dis VL - 3 IS - 1 N2 - Twenty-four hour urine specimens from 5,677 stone-forming patients throughout the United States were analyzed for seasonal variations in urinary risk factors for nephrolithiasis. Determinations were performed for urine volume, pH, calcium, oxalate, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, citrate, sulfate, uric acid, and the relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, brushite, monosodium urate, and uric acid. Criteria for significant seasonal variation included a significant difference in monthly means of risk factors, seasonal grouping of the data by the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test, consistent year-to-year trends and a physiologically significant range. Minimum urine volume of 1.54 +/- 0.70 SD L/day occurred in October while a maximum urine volume of 1.76 +/- 0.78 SD L/day was observed during February. Minimum urine pH of 5.94 +/- 0.64 SD was observed during July and August while a maximum pH of 6.18 +/- 0.61 SD was observed during February. Daily urinary excretion of sodium was lowest during August, 158 +/- 74 SD mEq/day and highest during February 177 +/- 70 SD mEq/day. The RS of brushite and uric acid were found to display significant pH-dependent seasonal variation with a maximum RS of uric acid 2.26 +/- 1.98 SD in June and a low of 1.48 +/- 1.30 SD in February. Maximum RS of brushite 2.75 +/- 2.58 was observed during February. Minimum RS of brushite 1.93 +/- 1.70 SD was observed in June. Phosphorus excretion displayed seasonal variation about a spring-fall axis with a maximum value 1042 +/- 373 SD mg/day in April and a minimum value of 895 +/- 289 SD mg/day. Urine volume, sodium, and pH were significantly lower during the summer (June, July, August) than in the winter (December, January, February). The RS of uric acid was higher, but that of brushite and monosodium urate was lower in the summer than in the winter. The seasonal changes observed in urine volume, pH, sodium, and the RS of brushite and uric acid are consistent with summertime sweating and increased physical activity. Seasonal variations in phosphorus excretion are probably dietary in origin. The summertime was characterized by an increased propensity for the crystallization of uric acid but not of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. SN - 1040-2152 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11536932/Seasonal_variations_in_urinary_risk_factors_among_patients_with_nephrolithiasis_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/urinalysis.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -