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Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa.
Paleobiology. 1996 Spring; 22(2):121-40.P

Abstract

The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of fossiliferous rock more than failure of species to enter the fossil record in the first place.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11539203

Citation

Foote, M, and D M. Raup. "Fossil Preservation and the Stratigraphic Ranges of Taxa." Paleobiology, vol. 22, no. 2, 1996, pp. 121-40.
Foote M, Raup DM. Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa. Paleobiology. 1996;22(2):121-40.
Foote, M., & Raup, D. M. (1996). Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa. Paleobiology, 22(2), 121-40.
Foote M, Raup DM. Fossil Preservation and the Stratigraphic Ranges of Taxa. Paleobiology. 1996;22(2):121-40. PubMed PMID: 11539203.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fossil preservation and the stratigraphic ranges of taxa. AU - Foote,M, AU - Raup,D M, PY - 1996/4/1/pubmed PY - 2001/9/11/medline PY - 1996/4/1/entrez KW - NASA Discipline Exobiology KW - NASA Discipline Number 52-40 KW - NASA Program Exobiology KW - Non-NASA Center SP - 121 EP - 40 JF - Paleobiology JO - Paleobiology VL - 22 IS - 2 N2 - The incompleteness of the fossil record hinders the inference of evolutionary rates and patterns. Here, we derive relationships among true taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and observed taxonomic ranges. We use these relationships to estimate original distributions of taxonomic durations, preservation probability, and completeness (proportion of taxa preserved), given only the observed ranges. No data on occurrences within the ranges of taxa are required. When preservation is random and the original distribution of durations is exponential, the inference of durations, preservability, and completeness is exact. However, reasonable approximations are possible given non-exponential duration distributions and temporal and taxonomic variation in preservability. Thus, the approaches we describe have great potential in studies of taphonomy, evolutionary rates and patterns, and genealogy. Analyses of Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician trilobite species, Paleozoic crinoid genera, Jurassic bivalve species, and Cenozoic mammal species yield the following results: (1) The preservation probability inferred from stratigraphic ranges alone agrees with that inferred from the analysis of stratigraphic gaps when data on the latter are available. (2) Whereas median durations based on simple tabulations of observed ranges are biased by stratigraphic resolution, our estimates of median duration, extinction rate, and completeness are not biased.(3) The shorter geologic ranges of mammalian species relative to those of bivalves cannot be attributed to a difference in preservation potential. However, we cannot rule out the contribution of taxonomic practice to this difference. (4) In the groups studied, completeness (proportion of species [trilobites, bivalves, mammals] or genera [crinoids] preserved) ranges from 60% to 90%. The higher estimates of completeness at smaller geographic scales support previous suggestions that the incompleteness of the fossil record reflects loss of fossiliferous rock more than failure of species to enter the fossil record in the first place. SN - 0094-8373 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11539203/Fossil_preservation_and_the_stratigraphic_ranges_of_taxa_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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