Illustrative disorders of ectopic skeletal morphogenesis: a childhood parallax for studies in gravitational and space biology.Gravit Space Biol Bull. 1999 May; 12(2):27-38.GS
Heterotopic ossification is a key feature of at least three distinct genetic disorders of osteogenesis in humans: fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, progressive osseous heteroplasia, and Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy. All three conditions are genetic disorders of childhood, but the pathobiology of osteogenic induction, the histopathology of osteogenesis, the anatomic distribution of heterotopic lesions, and the developmental patterns of disease progression differ among the three conditions. The phenotypic distinction of these disorders is critically important in counselling patients and families as well as in advancing research to define the molecular pathophysiology of heterotopic osteogenesis in these disabling genetic disorders. Genetic disorders of tissue modeling and morphogenesis provide an important parallax to disturbances of tissue re-modeling that are of paramount importance to gravitational and space biologists as humans begin to explore and live in environments beyond the planet on which they evolved. Disorders of osteogenesis are of particular concern to space biologists due to the dramatic changes in skeletal biology in altered gravitational fields.