Effect of long term bed rest in men on enzymatic antioxidative defence and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.J Gravit Physiol. 1998 Jul; 5(1):P163-4.JG
Bed rest is an integral part of treatment of numerous diseases. Typical examples are bone fractures of lower extremities and pelvis. Temporary immobilization is necessary also, e.g., in heart diseases (stroke), backbone and imminent abortion. The sick organism spares energy during the bed rest wich is beneficial. However, bed rest results in many alterations which are disadavantageous. They concern the function of almost all organs and systems but affect most significantly the locomotor and ciruclatory systems. Bed rest brings also about changes in the composition of peripheral blood and functions of the morphotic elements of blood. Red blood cells are subjected to the action of large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS). During oxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin superoxide radical anion (O2-) is formed: HbFe2+ + O2 --> MetHbFe3+ + O2- (1) Ferrous and ferric ions present in the cytoplasm of red blood cells may be catalysts of the Fenton reaction leading to the production of the hydroxyl radical: O2- + Fe3+ --> O2- + Fe2+ (2) Fe2+ + H2O2 --> Fe3+ + OH + HO- (3) OH shows a tremendous reactivity. It may react with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. The process of lipid peroxidation is best understood. It concerns mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids present in cell membranes. Peroxidation of membrane lipids decreases membrane fluidity and impairs its barrier function. The lowered membrane fluidity compromises erythrocyte deormability which in turn disturbs oxygen delivery to the tissues. End productions of lipid peroxidation are low-molecular wieght compounds, among them carbohydrates (ethane and pentane) and aldehydes, e.g. malondialdehyde (MDA). MDA concentration is an acknowldeged marker of the intensity of lipid peroxidation. Erythrocytes contain a complex system of protection against the action of ROS. It includes various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanism. The most important antioxidative enzymes of the red blood cells are superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, EC 184.108.40.206) catalase (CAT, EC 220.127.116.11) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, EC 18.104.22.168). Cu,Zn-SOD catalyzes the dismuation of O2- to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Catalase and peroxidase remove H2O2 and, moreover, GSH-Px can reduce lipid peroxides. Under normal conditions an equilibrium exists between the formation and removal ROS. If ROS are formed in excess or the defensive antioxidative mechanism are inefficient, oxidative stress develops. Derangement of the equilibrium between the formation and removal of ROS is important in the pathosgenesis of many diseases, e.g. atherosclerosis, diabetes, Down syndrome and Alzheimer disease. There are literature data on disturbances of enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanism of blood plateless during bed rest. This study was aimed at an examination of the post-traumatic bed rest on the enzymatic antioxidative defense mechanisms and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes.